-in the seventeenth century, Constantinople became aware of its weakness next to Europe and of increasing commercial rivalry with European powers. The Ottomans attempted to shape their court along the lines of the most prestigious court in Europe, the court of France. This was the beginning of repeated attempts to use 'westernization' to reinforce the Ottoman Empire against the West itself.
-by the mid-19th century, efforts to create a western-educated elite around the sultan were in full swing. By World War I, the Ottoman Sultans had created the very secular, westernized elite that would finish them off.
-after World War One, the Ottoman Caliphate came to an end.
-on the 29th October,1923
the 'Young Turks', headed by an army officer, Kemal Ataturk founded the Republic of Turkey. The new state was set up on 6 principles: 1) republicanism 2) nationalism 3) populism. 4) statism 5) secularism 6) reformism (or Westernization).
The post- war period, however, saw a gradual revival of Islam First there was Adnan Menderes who attempted greater tolerance toward Islam. He was overthrown and hanged in a military coup in 1960. The secularist military, heir to the legacy of Ataturk, set itself up as the ultimate arbiter in Turkish politics, intervening not only on religious, but on political and economic grounds as well.
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