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Wednesday, July 24, 2013

Princess Kate and Prince William name the royal baby 'George.'

HISTORY IN THE NEWS:




History never dies. It is reborn every minute of every day.

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DEDICATED TO THE ORIGINS OF CONTEMPORARY EVENTS AROUND THE WORLD.

EUROPE




        
BRITAIN






IN THE NEWS: THE DAUGHTER OF THE DUKE AND DUCHESS OF CAMBRIDGE NAME THEIR NEW BORN BABY 'GEORGE,' WITH MIDDLE NAMES "LOUIS ALEXANDER." 

IN HISTORY- If the royal baby ever becomes king, he will be George VII, descendant in a line of British King Georges from 1714 until 1952.

RELEVANT DATES:

 George I

1660-1727- King George I, born in Hanover, great grandson of James I of England. He ascended the throne of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714 but having been born in Hanover and Elector of Hanover since 1698, he remained more interested in the small German principality,spending more time there than he did in England and taking little interest in the business of being king.

George II

1683-1760- George II, son of George I, ascended the throne in 1727. He retained his father's title, Elector of Hanover. He took a more active part in ruling England but allowed Sir Robert Walpole to steer the ship of state for the first half of his reign. During the war of the Austrian  succession, he was in titular command of British troops at the battle of Dettingen in 1743 during the War of the Austrian Succession, the last time a British monarch was present as commander in chief on a field of battle. Dettingen was a British victory, though the French were allowed to escape intact. It was under George II that the British crushed the Scottish Jacobites at the Battle of Culloden in 1745.

George III

1783-1820- George III- "Mad King George" became king in 1738 and like his forebears remained Elector of Hanover. He was the eldest son of Louis, Prince of Wales. Since Louis predeceased him he succeeded his grandfather, George II. George the III had talent but was a poor manager, allowing too much power to a clique of Whigs. He was held responsible, along with his minister, Lord North, for losing the American colonies to the revolution of1776. His appointment of Pitt The Younger improved the government, but George became increasingly insane after 1810 and his eldest son, the Prince of Wales, was made Regent. The reign of George III and his Regency saw England's resistance of Napoleon in Spain and the Duke of Wellington's triumph over Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo.

George IV

1762-1830- George IV-  Eldest son of George III, he became regent in 1810. He had forfeited the throne by marrying a Roman Catholic in 1785 but the marriage was declared invalid and his marriage to Princess Caroline of Brunswick allowed him to become king in 1762.His treatment of Catherine was a public scandal. In the end, George IV goes down in history as a wastrel and a decadent.

George V- The First George to be a Windsor.

1865-1936- George V. George, second son of King Edward VII ,ascended the throne in 1910. He had served in the navy and throughout the Empire before becoming Prince of Wales in 1901. His reign was witness to the Boer War, World War One, and the creation of the Irish Republic. His consort Mary became famous for her philanthropy and public spirit. The royal family had been descended from the German House of Saxe-Coburg Gotha since the reign of Queen Victoria; during World War I, the king agreed that it would be more seemly to adopt the non-Germanic name of Windsor.

 George VI

1895-1952- George VI- second son of George V, he was made Duke of York in 1920.  He served in the navy at the Battle of Jutland in 1916. His elder brother had succeeded their father as Edward VIII but abdicated the throne in order to marry an American, causing a sensation scandal. George ascended the throne in 1936, remained in Buckingham Palace throughout the Blitz and saw the nation through World War II with famous radio broadcasts delivered after he overcame a severe speech impediment.    


SUMMARY: EUROPE THEN AND NOW.

On the verge of final unity in the 21st century,  is Europe closer than ever to disunity?

     Unlike China and Russia, Europe has never lent itself to unity on a continental scale. Many causes have been given, like its division by rivers and mountain ranges, a wealth and fertility that encouraged self sufficiency and not least the the great number of different peoples who migrated westward from inner Asia until the fall of Rome. Viewed from the east, Europe can seem a ragged and chaotic far western promontory of Asia.

            And yet the habit of speaking of Europe as whole has never been so frequent as now. In the past, consciousness of a single Europe is sporadic, usually associated with attempts to unify it: by Rome, by the Holy Roman Empire, by Napoleon and by Germany and so on. After every ettempt it collapses back into smaller units like nations, dynasties and fiefdoms. Inchoate nations begin to appear in the 15th century. Even then, and down through the nineteenth century, Europe's underlying reality is dynastic. Only in the first half of the twentieth century does the whole Europe of begin to appear primarily in terms of its individual nations. Even that is short-lived, ending with the Cold War when larger unities appear once again: a Western Europe and an Eastern Europe.

Meanwhile, democracy quakes in contemporary Greece while the European Union remains skeptical of admitting Muslim Turkey as a member.

           The Europe that considers itself Christian, democratic and a defender of human rights tends to look back to ancient Greece. In this sense, Europe is inseparable from the idea of the West. A Europe that distinguished itself against everything to the east arose when Greece pitted itself against Persia in the fifth century BC. The sense of the individual free Greek and the democratic city state, in opposition to the unfree barbarian was proud and exclusive.

Alexander the Great attempted a synthesis of the West with the Middle East. Modern Europe isn't so sure.

          The idea of an inclusive West rooted in Europe arrives with Alexander of Macedon and his attempt to impose Hellenistic cultural unity from the Aegean to the Indus. We get a similar sense of homogeneity with Rome although the Roman empire seems by comparison accidental. Its origins, in Latium, on the Italian peninsula, are defensive. Rule over the entire Mediterranean only begins after a fight to the death against Carthage.

             With Caesar defense turns to outright acquisition. With acquisition comes the moral and ideological justification of Roman citizenship and the universal Pax Romana. The empire spreads northward. The union of continental Europe finally begins to appear.

           In the fourth century, the power of the Roman Imperium is transferred to Christianity, the empire's new religion. It's important to remember however, that the empire retains its southern, Latin identity. With the Barbarian Invasions and the fall of Rome in the fifth century, the entire unity disintegrates.Secular power begins to distinguish itself from ecclesiastical power. Barbarian kings become powerful in the northern continent. A Christian papacy retains power on the old seat of the Empire but its secular rule is weak. Eastern and Western Empires appear, each with its own version of Christianity.

Despite the extension of EU membership to the European Union, Eastern Europe remains distinct; indeed the heir to a history and culture that has thrived on distinction from Western Europe.

           From this period of disintegration arises the enduring distinction of a Western and an Eastern Europe.Culturally, it will be more or less constant, politically the contrast will come and go. Europe as a whole is strengthened by the Byzantine struggle with Muslim expansion in the east and the Frankish confrontation with Muslim Spain in the west.

Powerful Germany remains at the core of the EU; it was also the core of the Holy Roman Empire.

          The Frankish King Charlemagne is the first northern European to forge a continental unity when in 800 he is crowned in Rome by the Pope as Emperor of a Holy Roman Empire. The Holy Roman Empire, centered in Germany and Austria, will endure, weakening all the way, until its demise in 1806.  In High Middle Ages, from about 900 AD until 1300 AD rapid progress in the standard of living and scholarship produces for the first time a Christian Civilization thought to be a worthy heir to Rome. Even then the Holy Roman Emperors, usually German, are embroiled in warfare and in power struggles with the Papacy.

          The Middle Ages witness European decline decline with the disasters of the Bubonic Plague, the Crusades and the Hundred Years' War. Out of the depths rises a new Europe of inchoate nation states with parliaments demanding popular representation. Only in central Europe, from Germany down through Italy, do nations fail to form as regions are continually torn asunder by rivalry between the Holy Roman Emperor and the Papacy. At the same time new wealth, especially in the small city states of Italy, gives rise to the cultural movement of the Renaissance which moves the emphasis from God to Man and cuts learning free of the bonds of the church.

          Curiosity leads to scientific experimentation, the discovery of a universe in which man is no longer at the center, but also to an age of exploration, the European discovery of the African coast and the Americas. At the forefront of navigation, Portugal builds an empire in Brazil while Spain founds colonies in the remainder of the Central and South America.   

Like Papal Rome, the EU attempts to impose ethical standards on the continent. Corrupt Rome was reviled;  Brussels is resented.

          The new skepticism of the Renaissance, however, extends to skepticism of the Church of Rome and soon a new Protestant faith opposes itself everywhere to Catholicism. A Catholic and a Protestant Europe struggle for mastery over almost two centuries, between 1500 and 1700. The Holy Roman Emperor, far from being nonpartisan combines the Catholic cause with the cause of his dynasty. In this terrible period, exemplified by the Thirty Years' war, to call Europe Christian seems almost an indictment.

         It is exhaustion, perhaps, which produces political settlements that mandate tolerance and allow states to prevail over religions. A new age of politics is born, embodied in the economically powerful states of Holland,  Louis XIV's France, the Spain of Philip II and the rise of a new state, Prussia, so terrified by the Thirty Years War that it places military discipline above all else. The efforts of the Hapsburg Holy Roman Emperors to form a continental empire through dynastic marriages produces instead a chaotic patchwork. In this age of monarchical absolutism, Europe, typically full of conflict, nevertheless produces a higher sort of unity. With the new concept of the Balance of Power and the high art of diplomacy, wars though incessant, are smaller and more contained.

Britain France and America once fought one another in North America in a series of trans Atlantic alliances. Now they are all joined in NATO.

        By the eighteenth century, Europe is distinguished by competition among France, Spain and England for overseas colonies while the old dynastic struggles continue on the continent. Spain, weak in industry and spoiled by gold from the Americas, goes into decline. France and England expand in North America. European national and dynastic alliances produce wars which have their counterparts in North America.

      France, the greatest of the European powers, has achieved its dominance only by the lavish expenditures of two spendthrift monarchs, Louis XIV and Louis XV. The bankruptcy of the nation and a series of crop failures reveal an impoverished majority bearing the weight of a grossly unjust and inefficient feudal system. The new educated class of the urban bourgeoisie organizes and foments a revolution which begins in 1789, continues in 1792 with the overthrow of the monarchy and the founding of a republic, and ends after a period of political terror and the chaotic dictatorship of the Directory.

Whether it likes it or not, the EU is the direct heir to Napoleon's attempt to impose uniform political values on the continent.

      All of Europe takes notice. Monarchs fear for their thrones and launch military campaigns on revolutionary France. France mobilizes armies in defense and uses them to spread the the ideas of the revolution. But rule by the Directory is chaotic, the country on the verge of political collapse. A young general, Napoleon Bonaparte, takes power in a coup d'etat. Basing his rule on free Republic of Ancient Rome, he forms a Consulate an then an Empire which nevertheless preserves the basic gains of the revolution.. As he successively defeats the crowned heads of Europe in battle, he consolidates the revolution and enshrines the revolution's ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity throughout the continent. In addition, he blockades Europe to isolate England and to ensure that all trade is with France. No such empire has united Europe since Charlemagne.  

Is the European Union a descendant of  Napoleon's continental system?

       The question as to whether Napoleon controlled the continent in defense of the revolution, or whether his conquests arose from personal ambition will never be settled. In any case, Spain and Russia are unattainable and drain his resources. He goes down to defeat at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. The Bourbons are restored to the throne of France and the other monarchies do everything they could to fortify the return to a monarchical, feudal Europe.

France still has a habit of electing left wing governments (Mitterand, Hollande), often in the face of a conservative Europe

       It was not to last. Napoleon has no imperial legacy but the values of the Revolution he defended survive. They survive in the nationalism and republicanism that explodes all over Europe in 1848. And it's nationalism and republicanism, for better or for worse, that Europe will export to the world. For it is the European, Napoleonic model of the coup d'etat and national and republican dictatorship, reformist or reactionary, that spreads throughout Central and South America, deeply influences Russia and China, and to a significant extent, Africa and Southeast Asia.   

The European Union is not merely a political and economic project; it has been a way to prevent the recurrence of the sins of the past.

       The "Eurocentrism" of Europe is soon a  blunt fact. By 1900 it is the most influential continent and culture in history. As with everything in nature, however, decline is inevitable. Colonial, economic and military competition consumes a civilization in the midst of a long and historic peace. The monumentally bloody dynastic war of 1914 shows the world a modern, cosmopolitan Europe in the grips of something deeply regressive and atavistic. Imperial Germany is the aggressor, but all nations are consumed in a jingoistic militarism that leaves them unprepared for the monstrosity of modern, mechanized warfare which leads, paradoxically to complete immobility and entrapment in slaughter.

Europe still questions what it sometimes sees as American naivete and moralism.

      In the peace settlement of 1919, it's America that flexes its muscles by helping to build a new Europe in which old, warlike dynasties are to be replaced with modern national states with borders rounding out approximate ethnic majorities. Is it America's naivete or Europe's that plays directly into the hands of 
of nationalism at its worst?  The nationalism that seemed to show such promise a half century earlier has become a nightmare of autocratic rule and race hatred in Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. The same terrible atavism, a dark, medieval unconscious, culminates in the terror of Adolf Hitler, another world war and Germany's extermination of six million Jews. Europe has raced ahead of the world in progress but  plunged backward into the deepest nightmares of barbarism.

 In some sense, a Byzantine, collectivist East in opposition to an individualist Latin West endures in Cold War Europe.

     The war ends with Germany's defeat but much of Europe lies in ruins. Again, it is an outside power, the United States, that initiates the continent's reconstruction. The British empire is at an end. Europe, for the first time in  four and a half centuries becomes a collection of middle and smaller powers. The continent is divided between Soviet Russia and the western democracies represented led by the United States.Germany is split between a Communist East Germany and a Capitalist West. Not since the schism between Byzantium and the Roman West has the division been so stark. There is even some economic and cultural continuity in a collectivist East and an individualist West. The west is further bolstered against the Soviet Union by NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a mutual defense pact which includes Canada, the United States, and the nations of western Europe. France, in an attempt to restore its historical dominance on the continent, refuses membership.

 Does the English Channel still separate Britain from Europe as it did when England defied Napoleon's Continental system?

        A new Europe rises from the ashes. An economic union begins to emerge in western Europe with treaties between France and Germany. Throughout the late 1950s, a Common Market begins to develop in western Europe but with much resistance from Britain. The English channel seems part of Europe's destiny. Positions harden in the Cold War between the two nuclear powers, Russia and the United States. Russia builds the Berlin Wall. Europe is certainly to be the first and greatest casualty in any nuclear war. But the drive toward some sort of economic and monetary union in western Europe is steady and persistent. The cultural and social revolution of the 1960s produces radical left movements everywhere, with the greatest extremes of left and right in Italy.

 Eastern Europe has seen the Mongols, Muscovy and Russia come and go. And now, Communism.

    Europe will once again be in one piece but not by its own designs or under its own power. It will take the implosion of Russian Communism and the breakup of the Soviet Union under the auspices of US leadership to bring down the Berlin Wall and begin the reintegration of the continent. With much effort, the two Gemanys are reunited. But the appearance of a normal continent of nation states, not seen since the 1920s and 1930s, belies the truth of a wealthy west and a poorer east less disposed to democracy.

     The European Union gradually accepts member states in Eastern Europe, while the expansion of NATO in the same region makes Russia uncomfortable, perhaps with memories of Hitler and Napoleon. In the 1990s, a single economic union comes about as the Maastricht Treaty begins to be applied, though there will be much haggling before it's approved.
 
Finally a united Europe: fragile, fissile, individualist.

     On January 1, 1999, a single currency, the Euro, is introduced. The Treaty of Nice in 2001, extends democracy in the functioning of the union. One country after another adopts the Euro. In 2004, ten new member states join, most of them in Eastern Europe.

   As the twenty-first century begins, Muslim immigration causes cultural and political strains throughout western Europe.  A general debate turns on whether Muslims should conform culturally or whether concessions should be made to Muslim customs, particularly concerning dress and Sharia law.

And then the market crash: shades of a hard-driving Germanic north and a gentler Greek and Latin south. Is the south like Constantinople and Rome- tragically resistant to change?

        In 2007, the signing of a revised Maastricht Treaty opens the way to greater monetary union. Then, at the very point of Europe's triumph, disaster strikes. With the 2008 market crash in the United States the damage is at first manageable. But Greece, followed by Ireland, Portugal, Spain and Italy prove unable to pay their debts. A financial maelstrom develops even more serious than that endured by the United States. With orchestration by the EU in Brussels, Germany, the Union's wealthiest banker begins to bail out one economy after the other. But only after each has agreed to strict austerity measures. Popular, often violent protests, especially among the millions of unemployed reject austerity altogether. A new conflict appears to divide the continent. Northern Europe, portrayed as ruthless and greedy seems pitched against a southern Europe caricatured as lazy and indulgent. The latest country to fall into the arms of German bankers is Cyprus, as of February, 2013.

BELOW ARE TWO TIMELINES: The first timeline is for Europe as a whole; this includes attempts at European unity, for example by Rome, by the Holy Roman Empire or by Napoleon, as well as issues affecting European history as a whole, such as Islam, and finally the growth of European institutions like the European Union. The second timeline combines the former with dates for individual West European countries. (A separate entry for Eastern Europe is still to come.)
 

TIMELINE FOR EUROPE AS A WHOLE AND EUROPEAN UNITY.

                 CAESAR



58-50- BC- Caesar's conquest of Gaul- France, Belgium, parts of Holland, Germany and Switzerland.
                 
                 AUGUSTAN AGE. 


31 BC- foundation of Roman Empire by Octavian ; Gaul (France) and south and west Germany.
43-85- Britain-  conquest by Rome.
43-410- Britain  in Roman Empire.
96-180- Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, Marcus Aurelius- the 'five good emperors."
101-106- Roman conquest of Dacia by Trajan.

                DECAY OF IMPERIUM
180-192- tyranny of Commodus- end of accord between Emperor and Senate.
193-235- Severan dyansty- Septimus, sons and grand nephews- breakdown of Augustan order.
235- 50 years of chaos follows murder of  Severus Alexander.
274- France- Aurelian recovers Gaul, reforms the currency

                EUROPE CHRISTIANIZED.



306-337- Europe- Christianization by the Emperor Constantine.
306- Britain- Constantine proclaimed emperor at York.
312- Italy- taken by Constantine.
324- Constantine defeats Lucinius and reunites the Empire.
325- Council of Nicea- Christian theology enforceable by the empire.
330- founding of Constantinople which becomes the imperial capital.
331- Constantine expropriates pagan temples

                         FALL OF ROME
400s- Germany, France- Germanic tribes migrate west.
406-407- France- Gaul overrun by Allans, Sueves and Vandals. 
410- Rome sacked by Visigoths.

410- Britain: Romans withdraw.
416-751- France- Merovingian dynasty.
476- Europe: -final fall of the Roman Empire.

                         THE DARK AGES.
527-565- Emperor Justinian.
533- Byzantine emperor Justinian tries to reconquer the West.
Italy- Lombards invade Italy. Avars dominate the Danube.
572- Spain conquered by Visigoths. 
590-  Gregory I- the Great (590-604) - greatly increased the secular power of the papacy, Gregory was also influential in matters of doctrine, liturgy, and missionary work.He was the second pope of German extraction.
596- Conversion of Britain's Anglo Saxons to Christianity.
602- Byzantine Emperor Maurice overthrown by army. Phocas made emperor. 
711- Spain ruled by Muslims.
717-741- Romen Emperor Leo I.
732- defeat of Muslims at Tours, France.
741-928- France- Carolingian dynasty.
768-814- France, Europe- Charlemagne.

CHARLEMAGNE.
800- coronation of Charlemagne as Emperor of Europe

Europe: Norse and Magyar Invasions.

MIDDLE AGES
 

                                                THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE.
962 - German King Otto I crowned Roman emperor after gaining control of northern Italy; beginning of what became known as Holy Roman Empire centred on Germany. 
962-1806- Europe: Holy Roman Empire.
1054- Europe: Shcism between east and west Christian Churches.
1056-1106- Europe: Holy Roman Empeor Henry IV.
1066- England- the Norman Conquest.
1073-1085- Europe: Pope Gregory (Hildebrand) VII
1075-1122- struggle over papal investiture of kings in Europe.

1095- Europe: First Crusade.
1100s- Europe: rise of trading towns.
1100-1300- Europe: universities, scholasticism.
1138-1268- German: Hohenstaufen dynasty. 
1145–1149- The Third Crusade
1189- Europe: Third Crusade.
1198-1216- Europe: Pope Innocent III.
Gentry, merchants and clergy: The early parliamentary commons. The clergy stopped attending the lower house in the early 14th century
1200s-Europe:  the rise of parliaments.
-failure of Europe's HRE to organize in Germany and Italy.

                            DECLINE OF HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE.

1250- Germany- death of Emperor Frederick II Hohenstaufen marks virtual end of central authority and acceleration of empire's collapse into independent princely territories.

1308- France- papacy moved from Rome to Avignon.
1325- Europe- beginning of sea trade between Italy and Europe via the Atlantic.
1348-1349- Europe: Black Death: bubonic plague enters from the Mediterranean and sweeps Europe.
1378-1417- Papacy- Schism between Avignon and Rome in the papacy results in 40 years of dual popes
1400 1600 - Italy: Italian Renaissance.

                              THE HAPSBURGS
1438 - Austria- Election of Albert I marks beginning of Habsburg dynasty based in Austria. 
1438-1918- Europe: Habsburg Emperors in: Austria, Spanish Netherlands and Spain.
1453- Europe- end of Eastern Roman Empire as Constantinople falls to the Ottomans.
1455 - Gutenberg Printing Press 
1492- European discovery of America by Colombus.


 
 1500ff- Europe: the Protestant Reformation.

1517- Germany: Luther's 95 theses posted in Wittenburg.
1519-1556- Europe: HRE Charles V. 
1519-1648- Europe: Habsburg Supremacy.
1521- Europe, France- beginning of Habsburg-Valois wars; Diet of Worms.
1521- Germany: Luther banned by Church.
1526-  Europe: Charles V at war with the Turks. 
1527- Europe, Italy- fall of Rome to an HRE army.
1528- Europe- Basel and Berne accept Reformation.
1529- Austria: siege of Vienna by Turks.
1530- Europe- Diet of Augsburg- German Protestant Princes declare faith in Augsberg Confession. 
1535- Europe, Austria- Charles V takes Milan as an imperial Hapsburg fief.
1547- Germany- battle of Muhlberg- Charles V defeats the Protestant Schmalkaldic League.   
1555 - Europe: Peace of Augsburg stating that each ruler could choose the religion of his region of the HRE
1556-1598- Europe, Spain: Abdication of Charles V in Spain and Empire; accession of Philip II.
1556-1564- Europe: HRE Ferdinand I.
1559- Spain, Holland- Philip II returns to Spain from Netherlands, setting up Habsburg government in Spain. Dutch high nobility turns against Hapsburg reps.

                          DUTCH REVOLT AGAINST HABBURGS. 
1566- Holland:  revolt against Habsburgs begins.
1566-1567- Holland- rebllions against the Church. Philip II sends Duke kf Alca to put down uprising. William of Orange flees Holland.
1576-1612- Europe: HRE Rudolf II 
1581- Holland- revolutionary Estates General deposes Philip II as Lord of the Netherlands.

1588- England, Spain: Spanish Armada defeated by England in English Channel.
1588-1609-  Holland, Spain- Dutch drive the Spanish out of northern Holland, fail to drive them out of the South.
1600-1800 - Mercantilism and the East India Companies bring cash to Europe
1600-1800- decline of Central Europe. 
1609- Spain- truce between Republic of the United Netherlands and Spain.
1612-1619- Europe- Matthias HRE 

                                 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR.
1618 -1648 Europe- Germany: Thirty Years' War.
1621- Spain, Holland- end of Dutch-Spanish truce.
1625-1648: Holland: Dutch Republic joins the anti-Spanish coalition.  
1631- Germany: Capture and massacre of Magdeburg.
1632- Germany: Hapsburgs defeated at Lutzen; death of Gustavus Adophus.
1634- Germany- Assassination of Wallenstein.
1635- France enters Thirty Years' War against Spain; Treaty of Prague.

                                  PEACE OF WESTPHALIA.
1648- Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years' War and initiates the Sovereign State System by which no state is to interfere in the internal matters, including the religious policy, of any other.  End of Habsburg Supremacy. Recognition of independent Dutch Republic.
1683- Austria: Turks threaten Vienna
1689-1697- Europe: War of the League of Augsburg between Louis XIV of France and the HRE, Spain, Holland and Savoy. France emerges as the dominant power.
 
                            WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION.
1702-1713- England, Europe; War of the Spanish Succession.
1713-1714- Europe: War of Spanish Succession ends with the Peace of Utrecht and Rastadt. Rise of the English; decline of the Dutch.  
1733 - 1763 -War of the Austrian Succession, French and Indian War and 7 Years War.  

                                   AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT 
1740-1780- Austria: Maria Theresa.
1740-1786- Germany: Frederick II, the Great, of Prussia.
1740-1748- Europe: central years of the War of the Austrian Succession. 
1740-1789- Europe: Enlightened despotism.

1751 - 1772 - The Encyclopedia is published by Diderot.
1756- Europe: diplomatic revolution; the Habsburg-Bourbon alliuance.
1756-1763: Europe; France, Britain, Prussia: the Seven Years' War.
1763 - Europe: Peace of Paris ends 7 Years War
 
                     FRENCH REVOLUTION.
1789 - France: The French Revolution begins.
1792- France: August 10- overthrow of the monarchy Louis XVI. First Republic.
1792-1815- France, Europe: Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
1792-1797- Europe: War of the First Coalition.
1796-1797- France, Austria, Italy: Napoleon's First Italian Campaign.
1797: Europe; France, Austria: Treaty of Campo Formio.
1798-1814- Europe: predominance of French Directory and Consulate and Empire of Napoleon.
1798-1801: Europe: War of the Second Coalition.
1799 - France: Napoleon Takes Power in coup d'etat of Brumaire.
1799-1804- France: the Consulate.

                     NAPOLEON AND NAPOLEONIC WARS
1802-1803- Europe: Peace of Amiens. 
1804-1814: Europe, France: Napoleonic Empire. 

1806- Europe, Prussia Prussians defeated at Jena in Germany- end of Holy Roman Empire in Europe.
1806- Germany: the Confederation of the Rhine.
1806-1812- Europe: Napoleon's Continental system.
1807- Europe: Napoleon defeats Russia in East Prussia; alliance with Czar Alexander II at Peace of Tilsit 
1808-1813- Spain, France- Napoleon attempts conquest of Spain.
1809 -France, Austria: Defeat of Austria by Napoleon.
1809-1811- France: Napoleon at the height of his power.
1812 - England: War of 1812 
1812 - Europe: Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia. 
1813-- Germany, Austria, Europe: German war of Liberation: Napoleon defeated at Leipzig.
1814-1815:  Europe: The Congress of Vienna restates Conservatism in Europe.
1814-1848: Europe: Metternich influential.
1814-1830 France: restoration of the Bourbons, Louis XVIII . 
1814-1815- The Congress of Vienna.
1815 - Europe, France: The Hundred Days and Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo.

                        THE NINETEENTH CENTURY,
1818-1822- Metternich calls Congresses to prevent revolution anywhere in Europe and to prevent any one nation from becoming to powerful.
1818 - Europe: Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle -held in the autumn of 1818, was primarily a meeting of the four allied powers to decide the question of the withdrawal of the army of occupation from France and the nature of the modifications to be introduced in consequence into the relations of the four powers towards each other, and collectively towards France.
1819 -1850s England, France: Politics- The Isms 
1820- Europe: Congress of Troppau. a declaration of intention to take collective action against revolution.
1822- Europe: Congress of Verona- to prevent revolution in Greece.
1830- Europe- revolutionary ferment.
1830-1848 - France: Bourgeois Revolution- the July Monarchy.
1830- Belgium- Revolurtion.
1848 - France -February Revolution- established a bourgeois reoublic. In May-June, the Bourgeoisie repressed revolution by the workers. Second Republic.

 1848 - Germany -March Days and the Austrian and German Revolutions


1848- Austria- -attempted revolution- Emperor Ranz Joseph- 1848-1916. 
1848 - The Frankfurt Assembly.
1848 - Europe: Marx and Engels: The Communist Manifesto and Marxism
1848 - Communist Manifesto
1859-1870- Italy- Italian Unification
1866-1871- Germany: Unification.
1880s- Europe: rise of socialist parties.
1880-1914 - Europe: Rise and height of Imperialism 

1881- Europe: the triple alliance of France, Britain and Russia.
1885- Europe, Germany: Berlin conferecne on Africa
1889- Europe:  Second communist international.
1894- Europe, France: Franco-Russian alliance.
1900 ff- Europe: growth of democracy.
1904- Europe, France, England: Anglo French entente.
1905- Germany, France- Morocco crisis.


                        THE TRIPLE ENTENTE
1907- Europe: Triple entente.
1914 - Europe: Assassination of Francis Ferdinand leads to WWI

                       THE FIRST WORLD WAR.


1914-1918- Europe: World War I.
1918- Europe- Germany, Austria- Armistice at Compiegne ends WW I. Fall of German and Ausro-Hungarian Empires.
1919 - Europe- Treaty of Versailles and Wilson’s 14 Points 
1919-  Europe- Peace of Paris. 
1919- Euope-  further spread of democracy.

                        RISE OF FASCISM
1922-1943- Italy- Mussolini and Fascism.
1925 - Europe- Locarno Pactsold and new European nations seek to secure the post-war territorial settlement, and return normalizing relations with defeated Germany.

              THE DEPRESSION; THE RISE OF DICTATORS.
1929 - Europe: Great Depression begins.
1929-1930- Europe: Great Depression. Decline in democracy; rise of dictators.

                              THE NAZIS
1933 - Germany- Reichstag Fire and Rise of the Nazi Party

1933-1945- Germany- Adolph Hitler. Third Reich.
1933- Germany- quits League of Nations.
                         PRELUDE TO WORLD WAR TWO
1937-  Europe- Italy-Germany-Japan- axis powers.

1938 - England, Germany: Munich Crisis and appeasement.
1938: Austria, Germany: Anchluss: Germany annexes Austria.
1938-1939- Germany annexes Czecholslovakia.
1939- Germany- Nazi Soviet Pact.
1939-1945 - Nazi invasion of Poland triggers World War II. 
1939-1945- Britain, Germany at war.
1940-1944- Germany dominates Western Europe.
1940-1945- Europe- German domination- racist policy, liebensraum, extermination of the Jews.
1940- France falls to Germany.

1944-1945- Europe:  Allies liberate Western Europe. Russian offensive against Germany.

1945- Europe, Germany- Allied occupation of Germany. 
1945- Europe: deaths of Hitler and Mussolini.

ARRANGEMENTS FOR PEACE

 
1945 -Europe: Potsdam Conference
1945 -Europe:  Formation of the United Nations 

                          STALIN TAKES EASTERN EUROPE.
1945-1946- Europe, Germany- Stalin occupies Eastern Germany; West splits from East.

1945-47- Europe: Cold War begins.

                                 THE MARSHALL PLAN
1945-1953- Europe:  US Marshall Plan.
1946: Europe: European Union of Federalists forms to campaign for a United States of Europe.
1946:  Europe: Sept- Churchill calls for a United States of Europe based around France and Germany to increase chance of peace.
1947- Europe: signing of various peace treaties between different nations.

                                    TWO GERMANIES
1948 - Germany: Berlin Blockade and airlift.
1948- Italy- elections: Communists.
1948: Europe: Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) created to organise the Marshall Plan; some argue this is not unified enough.
1949- Germany: Federal Republic in West Germany; German Democratic Republic in East Germany.

                                FOUNDATION OF NATO.



1949- Europe: April- NATO founded.
1949- Europe: May- Council of Europe formed to discuss closer co-operation.
1950: Europe: May- Schuman Declaration (named after the French Foreign Minister) proposes French and German coal and steel communities.

                 WESTERN EUROPE UNITES ON COAL AND STEEL.
1951: Europe: April- European Coal and Steel Community Treaty signed by Germany, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, Belgium and Netherlands.
1952- Germany: end of Allied occupation of West Germany.
1952: Europe: May- European Defence Community (EDC) Treaty.
1953 -Europe: The Death of Stalin and Hardening of the Cold War.

                                   THE COLD WAR.
1953- Europe: economic recovery in Western Europe.
1954- Europe: Wetsern European Union; West German rearmament.
 1953: Europe: East Berlin Uprising.

1954: Europe: August- France rejects the EDC treaty.


                  THE EUROPEAN COMMON MARKET.
1957 Europe: 25 March: Treaties of Rome signed: creates Common Market / European Economic Community (EEC) and European Atomic Energy Community.
1958: Europe: Jan 1- Treaties of Rome come into effect
1958-1969- France: DeGaulle President.
1959- Europe, Britain: British back free trade association.
1960- France becomes a nuclear power.

                             THE BERLIN WALL.


1961- Europe, Germany: building of Berlin Wall.
1961: Europe: Britain tries to join the EEC but is rejected.
1963 - Nuclear Arms Treaty.
1963- Europe- France, Germany- January- Franco-German Treaty of Friendship; they agree to work together on many policy issues.

        FRANCE BLOCKS BRITAIN FROM COMMON MARKET.
1963- Europe, France, Britain: France vetoes British entry to Common Market.
1966: Europe: January- Luxembourg Compromise gives majority vote on some issues, but leaves national veto on key areas.
 1967: Europe: British application again rejected.
1968: Europe: July- Full customs union created in the EEC, ahead of schedule.

                                     HAGUE SUMMIT
1969: Europe: December- Hague summit to “relaunch” the Community, attended by heads of state.
1970: Europe: Werner Report argues economic and monetary union possible by 1980.
1970: Europe: April- Agreement for EEC to raise own funds through levies and customs duties.
1972- Europe: October-: Paris Summit agrees plans for future, including economic and monetary union and ERDF fund to support depressed regions.

                               EXPANSION OF THE EEC.
1973 Europe: Denmark, Ireland and UK join the EEC
1973- Germany joins UN.
1974- Europe: Economic recession.
1975 Europe: March: First meeting of the European Council, where heads of state gather to discuss events.

                                 THE RED BRIGADES.
1978 - Italy- Former Prime Minister Aldo Moro kidnapped and murdered by fanatical left-wing group, the Red Brigades. Abortion legalised.
1979 Europe: Greece admitted.The first European Parliament elections take place and the Single European Currency Unit was introduced (later to become the Euro)
1979: Europe: First direct elections to European Parliament.
1979- Europe: March: Agreement to create the European Monetary System.
                                                              
1981- Europe, Greece- Greece joins EEC
1982- Spain joins NATO.
1984- Europe: February: Draft Treaty on European Union produced.
1986: Europe, Portugal, Spain- Portugal and Spain join EEC
1987- Europe: 1 July: Single European Act comes into effect.

                      FALL OF THE BERLIN WALL.

1989 - Europe; Germany: The Berlin Wall falls and Communism ends.
1990- Germany- West Germany leads the new, unified Germany.
1991- German capital moved from Bonn to Berlin.
1991- Europe: the EEC is renamed the European Union (EU)
1992- Germany- former E.German leader Eric Honecker brought to Berlin on political charges.

                          THE MAASTRICHT TREATY.

1992- Europe: February: Maastricht Treaty, Treaty on European Union signed.
1992- Denmark rejects Maastricht Treaty on greater European integration.
1992- Belgium- Ratifies Maastricht.
1993- -Denmark approves Maastricht after being granted opting out clauses.
  SINGLE EUROPEAN MARKET.1993: Europe: Single Market begins.
1993- Germany approves Maastricht Treaty.
1993- Europe: 1 November: Maastricht Treaty comes into effect.1995- Austria, Finland and Sweden join the EU
1994- Germany- last of Russian and Allied troops leave Berlin.                  
1995- Europe, Austria- joins EU- but coalition government collapses over the budget and over criteria for joining the EU monetary Union.
1995: Europe: Spain joins EEC
1997- Europe: October: Treaty of Amsterdam makes minor changes.
1999- Europe: 1 January: Euro introduced in eleven counties.
1999- England decides not to adopt the Euro.
1999 Europe: 1 May: Treaty of Amsterdam comes into effect.

               AUSTRIA: HAIDER'S FAR RIGHT PARTY.
1999- Austria- October - Joerg Haider's far right Freedom Party wins 27% of vote in national elections, equal second with centre right People's Party though Social Democrats remain largest party.
2000- Austria- coaltion of People's Party and Social Democrats breaks down; People's party approaches Freedom Party Freedom Party becomes part of the government, sparking international and national protest. EU imposes diplomatic sanctions when People's Party head Wolfgang Schuessel becomes chancellor with Susanne Riess-Passer of the Freedom Party as his deputy. Haider, seen as too extreme- hands over party leadership to Riess-Passer.
September- EU ends diplmatic isolation of Austria, saying it achieves nothing.
2000- Denmark- rejects Euro.
2001-- Germany- march- European Court of Human Rights decides three former East German Communist leaders should serve jail time for allowing shooting of attempted escapees into W Germany.

                                          TREATY OF NICE
2001: Europe: Treaty of Nice signed; extends majority voting.
2001- Italy- foreign minister Renato Ruggiero resigns because of cabinet scepticism over EU.
2001- Holland- Euro replaces gilder.
2002: Europe; Spain hosts EU summit amid widespread strikes against rediction of unemployment benefits.
2002- Europe: the Euro is introduced in 12 of the EU member states including France.
2003- Europe: 1 February: Treaty of Nice comes into effect.

                       FURTHER EXPANSION OF EU.
2004- Europe: On May 1st 10 new member states join the EU. On June 10th, European Parliament elections take place in the UK -Draft EU constitution signed. 1 May: Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovak Republic, Czech Republic, Slovenia join EU
May- parliament ratifies EU constitution.

                    GERMANY: STASI FILES OPENED.
2005- Germany- restricted access allowed to Helmut Khol's Stasi files. -May- ratifies EU constitution.
June- Dutch reject EU consitution.
2005- Italy- ratifies EU constitution.
2005- Belgium: approves draft of EU constitution.
2005- France- May- Referendum opposess plan for EU constitution prompting resignation of Prime Minister Raffarin.
2005 September -Switzerland-  Referendum vote goes in favour of opening job market to workers from the 10 newest European Union countries.

                         DANISH CARTOONS OF MOHAMMED.
2005- Denmark- Cartoons on the Prophet Mohammed outrage Muslims and spark protest.
2005: Europe: Draft constitution rejected by voters in France and the Netherlands.
2006:  Denmark- January - February - Cartoon depictions of the Muslim prophet Muhammad, published by a Danish newspaper in 2005, spark belated mass protests among Muslims in a number of countries as well as unofficial boycotts of Danish goods.
2006- Austria- Vienna court sentences author David Irving to two years for Holocaust denial.
MAASTRICHT TREATY SIGNED.
2007- Europe: Treaty of Maastricht signed- opening the way to monetary union.
2007- Europe: Bulgaria and Romania set to join the EU
2007:  Europe: Lisbon Treaty signed, this modified the constitution until it was deemed a sufficient compromise; Bulgaria and Romania join.
2007- Spain: several found guilty and sentenced for 2004 Madrid train bombings.

                                          2008 MARKET CRASH.
2008- Europe:  stock market crash worldwide, triggered by excesses of US sub-prime mortgage lenders and collapse Of najor US banks.

2008: Europe: October - European governments pledge up to 1.8 trillion euros as part of co-ordinated plans to shore up their financial sectors, hit hard by the global financial crisis. France says it will inject 10.5bn euros into the country's six largest banks.
Germany: October- government passes $68 billion bailout plan for major German bank. Germany also shares in $1.8 trillion EU plan to prop up European economy.
November- Germany falls into recession.
2008- England- Otober- The British economy shrinks for the first time in 16 years and the pound has its biggest one-day drop against the dollar since 1971 on Oct 24

December- The London stock market loses 31% in 2008, the worst loss in 24 years
2008- Belgium-September- Together with The Netherlands and Luxembourg, Belgium agrees to inject funds into the ailing financial group, Fortis. Dutch operation later breaks away, weakening the Fortis group.Government announces agreement with France and Luxembourg to rescue embattled Dexia bank, the world's biggest lender to local governments.-October - Amid a worsening global financial crisis, Fortis financial group holdings in Belgium and Luxembourg is rescued by French bank BNP Paribas, which buys 75 percent of the group's shares. The deal creates one of the continent's biggest savings banks. 
-December- Prime Minister Yves Leterme resigns over scandal about Fortis recue.
 2009 January - Swiss economy officially goes into recession.

                           FRANCE CONSIDERS LIMITS TO USE OF BURKA
2009- France: Government plans commission on limits to use of the burka in France after Sarkozy said it undermines dignity of citizens.
2009- Sept.- England- The British stock market posts the best three months in 25 years
2009: Europe: October- Irish voters accept Lisbon Treaty.
-Lisbon Treaty comes into effect, amending Treaty of Maaastrict.

                                   SPANISH UNEMPLOYMENT SOARS
2009: Spain: unemployment soars to 19% by November.
2009- Germany- February- govrnment passes $68 billion natial financial rescue plan.
EUROPEAN UNION FINANCIAL CRISIS.  
2010- In January, a European Union report condemns sever irregularities in Greek accounting procedures. Greece's budget deficit in 2009 is revised upwards to 12.7%, from 3.7%, and more than four times the maximum allowed by EU rules.
-The European Central Bank dismisses speculation that Greece will have to leave the EU.
-European Union: In February, Greece unveils a series of austerity measures aimed at curbing the deficit.
-On 11 February, the EU promises to act over Greek debts and tells Greece to make further spending cuts. The austerity plans spark strikes and riots in the streets.
-Concern starts to build about all the heavily indebted countries in Europe - Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain
-The eurozone and IMF agree a safety net of 22bn euros to help Greece - but no loans.

                            SPANISH PROTEST AUSTERITY

2010 February - Spain- Thousands of workers demonstrate against government spending cuts and plans to raise the retirement age by two years to 67 - the first mass labour protests since the governing Socialist Workers' Party came to power in 2004. 
-In April, following worsening financial markets and more protests, eurozone countries agree to provide up to 30bn euros in emergency loans.
-Finally, on 2 May, the eurozone members and the IMF agree a 110bn-euro bailout package to rescue Greece.
-The euro continues to fall and other EU member state debt starts to come under scrutiny, starting with the Republic of Ireland.                

                      GREECE SLIDING TOWARD BANKRUPTCY. 
Greece- In March, Mr Papandreou continues to insist that no bailout is needed. The euro continues to fall against the dollar and the pound.
-Greek borrowing costs reach yet further record highs. The EU announces that the Greek deficit is even worse than thought.
Germany- May- public angered by $22 billion bailout plan for Greece.
-Merkel defeated in regional elections, losing majority in upper house.
2010 May - Germany's parliament votes to approve a 22.4bn euro German contribution to bail out debt-ridden Greece, prompting widespread public anger.
European Union- September - EU Justice Commissioner Viviane Reding urges the European Commission to take legal action against France over its deportations of the Roma, calling it a "disgrace". The threat of legal action is lifted after France pledges to implement a 2004 EU directive on freedom of movement.

                     A BAILOUT FOR IRELAND.
2010-  November, the EU and IMF agree to a bailout pakage for the Irish Republic totalling 85bn euros. The Irish Republic soon passes the toughest budget in the country's history. 

                         VEIL BAN IN FRANCE
2011 France- April - Face veil ban comes into force.
2011 July - Italy- IMF calls on Italy to do more to reduce its public debt - one of the largest in the Eurozone - and push through spending cuts.

                        GERMANY'S MERKEL BACKS GREEK BAILOUT.
2011 July - Germany- Chancellor Merkel defends her decision to back second huge bail-out for Greece, insisting that it is Germany's historic duty to protect the euro.
2011 September - Italy- Parliament gives final approval to a 54bn euro (£47bn; $74bn) austerity package. The package contains a pledge to balance the budget by 2013.
2011 September - France Credit rating agency Moody's downgrades the two biggest French banks, Credit Agricole and Societe Generale, because of concerns over their exposure to Greek debt. Credit Agricole later announces a cut of 2,350 jobs worldwide.
2011 December - Spain- New conservative government headed by Mariano Rajoy takes up office. Announces new round of austerity measures to slash public spending by 16.5bn euros ($21.5bn) and nearly halve the public deficit from about 8% of GDP in 2012.
2011- December- England-26 countries of the European Union, led by Germany, agree on a treaty to enforce fiscal and financial discipline on countries that adopt the euro, leaving Britain out.
2011 December - Italy-Mr Monti's package of austerity measures amounting to 33bn euros (£27bn; $43bn) of spending cuts gains parliamentary approval. The package also includes measures to raise taxes and tackle tax evasion.

                                       FRANCE LOSES TOP CREDIT RATING.
2012 January - France loses its top AAA credit rating from Standard & Poor's along with Spain and Italy. 
-Italy- US ratings agency Fitch downgrades Italy's credit rating by two notches to A-.

2012 January - Spain- Unemployment total passes the 5 million mark. This represents a jobless rate of 22.8% - the highest in the eurozone. Almost half of all 16-24 year-olds are out of work. 
2012 March - France French Islamist Mohamed Merah shoots dead seven people, including three Jewish schoolchildren, in Toulouse. He is shot dead in a police siege of his flat. France bans militant Islamist preachers from entering the country, beginning with the Qatari-based Egyptian Yusuf al-Qaradawi.
2012 April - Spain slips back into recession as economy contracts by 0.3% in the first quarter of 2012.


TIMELINE FOR THE HISTORY OF EUROPE AND WEST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES.
(with thanks to BBC Timelines- -some EU timeline items courtesy of 'Heads up' and 'About.com'; some dates 1400-1991 courtesy of Preshtigo.)

                
ARCHAIC AGE IN GREECE.
1230 BC- Destruction of Troy.
1130- destruction of Mycenae.
1100- Dorian invasion of Greece.
1000-600 BC- formal Archaic age in Greece.
600 BC- 300 BC- age of Greek City States.


                 CLASSICAL AGE
490 BC- Greeks defeat Persians at Marathon.
479 BC- Greeks defeat Persians at Plataea and Mycale.
478 BC- Athens founds the Delian league against Persia.
449 BC- Athens makes peace with Persia.
431-404 BC- Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta.
404-371- BC Spatan hegemony in Greece.
404 BC- Greek cities of Asia Minor given back to Persia.
400 BC- 1 BC- Hellenistic age.
399 BC- trial and execution of Socrates.
378 BC- Second Athenian League.
371 BC- Battle of Leucrta- decisive defeat of Sparta by Thebes.
371-362 BC- Theban hegemony in Greece.

  MACEDON AND ALEXANDER
359 BC- Philip II becomes King of Macedon.
338 BC- Philip II wins battle of Chaironea and subjugates Greece.
336 BC- Phlip II assassinated, succeeded by Alexander.

334 BC- Alexander the Great of Macedon invades Levant and Persia.
323 BC- death of Alexander at Babylon.

                 REPUBLICAN ROME
387 BC- Rome destroyed by the Celts.
338 BC- Rome rules Latium.
268 BC- Italy- Rome controls Italy south of the Po Valley.
                           Punic Wars.
264-241 BC- The First Punic War.
238 BC- Sardinia and Corsica taken from Carthage.
218-202 BC- Second Punic War
218-216 BC- Hanibal's victories over Rome.
200-197 BC- Rome defeats Philip V of Macedon.
195-179, 154-133- Spain- Rome subjugates Spain.
184 BC- Censrship of Cato.
181 BC- Italy- completion of Roman conquest of Italy south of the Alps.
149-146 BC- Rome conquers Greece.
135 BC- slave revolts begin in Sicily.
133 BC- murder of Tiberius Gracchus.
129 BC- conquest of Aegean.
121 BC- conquest of Narbonnese Gaul.
-murder of Gaius Gracchus.
114- BC- enlistment of landless men for the army by Marius.
91-19 BC- revolt of the Italian allies.
87-13 BC- Sulla subjugates Greece and Asia, defeats Mithridates VI of Pontus.
81-79 BC- dictatorship of Sulla.

                       Pompey and Caesar.
67 BC- Pompey suppresses piracy.
66-62 BC- Pompey defeats Mithridates VI and Tigranes of Armenia, annexes much of Asia minor and Syria.

58-50- BC- Caesar's conquest of Gaul- France, Belgium, parts of Holland, Germany and Switzerland.
48 BC- caesar defeats Pompey at Pharsalus.
48-47 BC- Caesar and Cleopatra in Egypt.
44 BC- Caesar's assassination by Senators.
43 BC- murder of Cicero.
                      Octavian and Marc Antony.
42 BC- Ceasar's assassins Crassus and Brutus defeated at Philippi by Octavian and Marc Antony.
37 BC- Antony marries Cleopatra.
31 BC- Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra at Actium, becomes supreme.

                AUGUSTAN AGE.
31 BC- foundation of Roman Empire by Octavian ; Gaul (France) and south and west Germany.

31-68 AD- the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
28- Octavian purges the Senate. Octavian renamed Augustus.
43-85- Britain-  conquest by Rome.
43-410- Britain  in Roman Empire.
54- Rome burns; Nero persecuted Christians.
69-96- Flavian dynasty- Vespasian, Titus and Domitian.
96-180- Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, Marcus Aurelius- the 'five good emperors."
79- Pompei destroyed by eruption of Vesuvius.
101-106- Roman conquest of Dacia by Trajan.

               DECAY OF IMPERIUM
180-192- tyranny of Commodus- end of accord between Emperor and Senate.
193-235- Severan dyansty- Septimus, sons and grand nephews- breakdown of Augustan order.
235- 50 years of chaos follows murder of  Severus Alexander.

               PERSECUTION OF CHRISTIANS. 
249- Decius persecutes Christians.
235- 50 years of chaos follows murder of Severus Alexander
251- Decius defeated and executed by Goths.
257- Valerian persecutes Christians.
274- France- Aurelian recovers Gaul, reforms the currency.
285- defeat of Carinus- Diocletian assumes power.
303- Diocletian persecutes the Christians.

                EUROPE CHRISTIANIZED.


306-337- Europe- Christianization by the Emperor Constantine.
306- Britain- Constantine proclaimed emperor at York.
312- Italy- taken by Constantine.
324- Constantine defeats Lucinius and reunites the Empire.
325- Council of Nicea- Christian theology enforceable by the empire.
330- founding of Constantinople which becomes the imperial capital.
331- Constantine exproproates pagan temples.
391- pagan worship prohinited by Theodosius,
400s- Germany, France- Germanic tribes migrate west.
406-407- France- Gaul overrun by Allans, Sueves and Vandals. 
410- Rome sacked by Visigoths.

410- Britain: Romans withdraw.
416-751- France- Merovingian dynasty.
476- Europe: -final fall of the Roman Empire.

                  THE DARK AGES
496- France: conversion of the Franks.
527-565- Emperor Justinian.
533- Byzantine emperor Justinian tries to reconquer the West.
568- founding of Venice in NE Italy.

Italy- Lombards invade Italy. Avars dominate the Danube.
572- Spain conquered by Visigoths.
596- Conversion of Britain's Anglo Saxons to Christianity.
602- Emperor Maurice overthrown by army. Phocas made emperor. 
711- Spain ruled by Muslims.
717-741- Romen Emperor Leo I.
732- defeat of Muslims at Tours, France.
741-928- France- Carolingian dynasty.
768-814- France, Europe- Charlemagne.

                     CHARLEMAGNE.
800- coronation of Charlemagne as Emperor of Europe

Europe: Norse and Magyar Invasions.
813-840- France- Charles II, the Fat.
871-899- England: Alfred the Great of Britain.
888-1328- France- Capetian dynasty.
900s- conversion of Swedes, Poles,. Hungarians to Rome;  Russians to Constantinople.

919-1024- Germany- Saxon dynasty.
919-936- Germany- Henry I.
936-972- Germany- Otto I.

                   MIDDLE AGES

962 - German King Otto I crowned Roman emperor after gaining control of northern Italy; beginning of what became known as Holy Roman Empire centred on Germany. 
962-1806- Europe: Holy Roman Empire.
983-1002- Germany- Otto III. 
1024-1137- Germany- Salian dynasty. 
1054- Europe: Shcism between east and west Christian Churches.
1056-1106- Europe: Holy Roman Empeor Henry IV.
1066- England- the Norman Conquest.
1073-1085- Europe: Pope Gregory (Hildebrand) VII
1075-1122- struggle over papal investiture of kings in Europe.


                   RISE OF TOWNS; CRUSADES.
1095- Europe: First Crusade.
1100s- Europe: rise of trading towns.
-Germany: Teutonic knights of Prussia.
1100-1300- Europe: universities, scholasticism.
-development of monarchy in England.
1138-1268- German: Hohenstaufen dynasty.
1154ff- England- Angevine House.
1189- Europe: Third Crusade.
1198-1216- Europe: Pope Innocent III.
1208 -France: Crusade against the Albigensian Heresy in Provence; Proevence annexed to France.
1212-1250- Germany- HRE- Frederick II.
1215-  beginning of representative government; King John of England forced by barons to sign the Magna Carta.
1215- Fourth Lateran Council.

                   RISE OF PARLIAMENTS
Gentry, merchants and clergy: The early parliamentary commons. The clergy stopped attending the lower house in the early 14th century
1200s-Europe:  the rise of parliaments.
-conversion of East Baltic peoples to Rome.
-failure of Europe's HRE to organize in Germany and Italy.
1236- Tartars in Russia.
1250- Germany- death of Emperor Frederick II Hohenstaufen marks virtual end of central authority and acceleration of empire's collapse into independent princely territories.
1266ff- France, Italy- Anjou dynasty in Naples-Sicily.
1268- Germany- death of Conradin.
1285-1314- France- Philip IV, the fair. 
1291 - Origin of the Swiss confederation when three cantons form an alliance to resist outside control.
1294-1303- Pope Boniface VIII
1295- England. Model Parliament.
1308- France- papcy moved from Rome to Avignon.
1313-1354- Italy- Cola, son of Rienci.
1314-1347- Germany- Louis of Bavaria, Wittelsbach.
1321- Italy- death of Dante.
1325- Europe- beginning of sea trade between Italy and Europe via the Atlantic.
1328- France- Valois Succeed Capetians. 

HUNDRED YEARS' WAR AND BLACK DEATH

1337-1453- England, France: Hundred Years War as England's kings attempt to claim territories in France.
1348-1349- Europe: Black Death: bubonic plague enters from the Mediterranean and sweeps Europe.
1356- the Golden Bull.
1378-1417- Papacy- Schism between Avignon and Rome in the papacy results in 40 years of dual popes.
1381- England- Watt Tyler's rebellion.
1385-1402- Italy- Milan- Duke Gian Galeazzo Visconti.

                  THE RENAISSANCE; BEGINNING OF NATION STATES
1394- Italy- death of English condottiere, John Hawkwood.
1400 1600 - Italy: Italian Renaissance 
1404-1414- Italy: King of Naples, Ladislaz Durazzo.
1412-1431- France: Joan of Arc.
1414-1415- Council of Constance.
1417-1468- Italy Sigismondo Malatesta, patron of the arts and tyrant of Rimini.
1420-1431- Hussite Wars in Czech region of Bohemia and Central Europe.
1431- France: Joan of Arc burned at the stake.

1434- Italy- Florence- Cosimo Medici takes power.
1438 - Austria- Election of Albert I marks beginning of Habsburg dynasty based in Austria. 
1438-1918- Europe: Habsburg Emperors in: Austria, Spanish Netherlands and Spain.
1450- Italy- Francesco Sforza made Duke of Milan.
1452 - 1519 - Leonardo da Vinci of Italy lives in Florence and France
1453- Europe- end of Eastern Roman Empire as Constantinople falls to the Ottomans.
1455 - Gutenberg Printing Press
1455-1485- England's dyanstic War of the Roses between houses of Tudor and Lancaster.
1457- the oldest surviving, dated book in print.
1461-1489- France- Louis XI.
1469- Italy- Florence- Lorenzo the Magnificent Medici takes power.
1479-1516-  Spain- Ferdinand and Isabella.
1479- Italy, France- France invades Italy; fall of the Medici. Rise of Republican Florence. 
1485- 1603- England's Tudor Monarchs replace English Angevins at battle of Bosworth.
1485-1509- England's Henry VII builds the British state.
Portugal: Portuguese Empire.
1492- European discovery of America by Colombus.
1494- invasion of Italy by France.
 1500ff- Europe: the Protestant Reformation.
1502- Italy, Spain. Spain conquers Naples.
1509-1547- England: Henry VIII succeeds upon death of henry VII.
1513- Italy- Macchiavelli, 'The Prince'.
1515-1547- France: Francis I.
1516- Italy: Concordat of Bologna.


                    REFORMATION 
 

1517- Germany: Luther's 95 theses posted in Wittenburg.
1519-1556- Europe: HRE Charles V. 
1519-1648- Europe: Habsburg Supremacy.
1521- Europe, France- beginning of Habsburg-Valois wars; Diet of Worms.
1521- Germany: Luther banned by Church.
1524-1525- Germany- peasant revolt.
1525- Italy, France- battle of Pavia- Francis I taken prisoner.
1525- Italy- sack of Rome.
1526-  Europe: Charles V at war with the Turks. 
1527- Europe, Italy- fall of Rome to an HRE army.
1528- Europe- Basel and Berne accept Reformation. 
1529- Austria: siege of Vienna by Turks. 
1529- England- fall of cardinal Wolsey.
1529-1536- England- Reformation Parliament.
1530- Italy- fall of the Florentine Republic, return of the Medici. 
1530 - Spanish Conquistadors in South America
1530- Europe- Diet of Augsburg- German Protestant Princes declare faith in Augsberg Confession. 
1531- Belgium: first stock exchange at Antwerp.

1534- England: Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy- making the throne, not the Pope, head of the Church. 
1535- Europe, Austria- Charles V takes Milan as an imperial Hapsburg fief.
1536-1539- England. Henry VIII's dissolution of monasteries
1536- Europe: France, Turkey in alliance against HRE Charles V.
1538- Switzerland- Generva accepts Reformation.
1540- England- Execution of Thomas Cromwell.
1540- founding of Jesuits. Society of Jesus approved by Pope.
1541-1554- Switzerland: Calvin at Geneva
1542- the Roman Inquisition. 
1543 - On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs by Copernicus published after his death.
1545-1563- Council of Trent.
1546- Germany- death of Martin Luther.
1546-1547- Europe- Schmalkaldic War. 
1547- Germany- battle of Muhlberg- Charles V defeats the Protestant Schmalkaldic League.
1547-1553- England: Edward VI upon death of Henry VIII.
1547-1559- France: Henry II
1553-1558- England: Mary I upon death of Edward VI.
 
1555 - Europe: Peace of Augsburg stating that each ruler could choose the religion of his region of the HRE 

                       GOLDEN AGE OF SPAIN.
1556-1598- Europe, Spain: Abdication of Charles V in Spain and Empire; accession of Philip II.
1556-1564- Europe: HRE Ferdinand I.
1557- Spain- Crown declares bankruptcy.
1558-1603- England: Elizabeth I upon death of Mary I.
1559- Scotland- Knox and the Reformation.
1559- France, Europe- Peace of Catrau-Cambresis- end of Hapsburg-Valois Wars. Death of Henry II.
1559-1589- France: period of weak monarchy.
1559- Spain, Holland- Philip II returns to Spain from Netherlands, setting up Habsburg government in Spain. Dutch high nobility turns against Hapsburg reps.

1561 - 1650 - Bacon and Descartes describe inductive and deductive thinking (respectively)
1561- Framce- Colloquium of Poissy.
1562-1598- France: religious wars- between government and Protestants.
1563- England- 39 articles, statute of apprentices.
1564-1576: Europe: Maximilian II. 

                            DUTCH REVOLT AGAINST HABBURGS. 
1566- Holland:  revolt against Habsburgs begins.
1566-1567- Holland- rebllions against the Church. Philip II sends Duke kf Alca to put down uprising. William of Orange flees Holland.
1569- England: Norfolk's rebellion.
1570- England- Elizabeth I excommunicated by Pius V. 
1571-  Italy- Turks defeated by Venice at Lepanto.

                              FRANCE- CATHOLIC-PROTESTANT RELIGIOUS WARS
1572- France: St. Bartholomew Massacre of Protestants ordered by Catherine de Medici.
1572- Holland- William of Orange ouccpies provinces of Zeeland and Holland.
1574-1589- France: Henry III.
1576- Holland- revolt spreads.
1574- France- death of Charles IX. Assembly of Millau- stronger government for French Protestants. 
1576-1612- Europe: Rudolf II
1576- France- Estates General of Blois fails to get relgious compromise.
1577- England and Holland in alliance.
1578- France, Holland-  Duke of Anjou invades Low Countries.
1579- Holland- Walloon nobility defects from revolt by Treaty of Arras. Alexander of Parma commands Spanish troops. 
1579- Spain- disgrace and arrest of first minister Antonio Perez.
1581- Holland- revolutionary Estates General deposes Philip II as Lord of the Netherlands.
1584- Spain intervenes in French civil wars.
1584- Holland- Assassination of William of Orange.
1585- Holland- Parma takes Antwerp- rebels withdraw behind rivers.
1587- France- Protestants win their first battle at Coutras.
1587- England, Spain- Francis Drake destroys Spanish Fleet at Cadiz.
1587- England- Execution of Mary Queen of Scots. 


1588- England, Spain: Spanish Armada defeated by England in English Channel.
1588-1609-  Holland, Spain- Dutch drive the Spanish out of northern Holland, fail to drive them out of the South.
1588- France- Catholic Guises seize Paris in revolt against Henry III.        
1589-1792- France: Bourbon dynasty.
1589- France- Henry III orders assassination of the Guises before he himself is assassinated.

                       FRANCE'S HENRY IV RECONCILES WITH PROTESTANTS.
1589-1610- France: Henry IV.
1590- France- Henry IV wins battle of Ivry against Catholic League.
1594- France- Henry of Navarre crowned Henry IV after taking Paris.
1595- France- Henry IV absolved of heresy by Clement VIII
1597- France- siege of Amiens.
1598- France- end of war between France and Spain with Treaty of Vervins.
1598- France: Edict of Nantes.
1598- Spain- Death of Philip II; accession of son, Philip III.
1600-1800 - Mercantilism and the East India Companies bring cash to Europe
1600-1800- decline of Central Europe.
1603- England: end of Tudors.
1603-1714- England: The Stuarts.
1603-1625- England: James I upon death of Elizabeth; union of Scottish and English crowns.
1607-1612- English, French, Spanish and Dutch found colonies in new world.
1608- Europe: Protestant Union.
1609- Europe:  Catholic League.
1609- Spain- expulsion of the Mariscos.
1609- Spain- truce between Republic of the United Netherlands and Spain.
1609 - Galileo Constructs a Telescope.
1610- France: Assassination of Henry IV.
1610-1643- France: Louis XIII
1611-1614- France- rebellion of the princes.
1612-1619- Europe- Matthias HRE

                      THIRTY YEARS' WAR. 
1612- Ferdinand II crowned king of Hungary and BohemIa.
1618 -1648 Europe- Germany: Thirty Years' War.
1619- Europe: Emperor Ferdinand II.
1620- Germany- Battle of White Mountain.
1621- Spain- rise of Count Olivares
1621- Spain, Holland- end of Dutch-Spanish truce.

1623- Germany: Palatinate loses electoral vote to Maximilian of Bavaria.
1624-1642- France: Cardinal Richelieu dominates Royal Council.
1624- France, Holland- treaty.
1625-1648: Holland: Dutch Republic joins the anti-Spanish coalition.
1625-1649-  England: Charles I upon death of James I.
1628- England: Petition of Right- assassination of Duke of Buckingham.
                           England's Charles I.
1629-1640- England- Autocracy of Charles I.
1629: France: Peace of Alais. 
1629- Germany: Edict of Restitution. 
1630- Germany- Electoral Assembly of Regensberg demand Wallenstein's resignation.
-Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, subsidized by France, lands in northern Germany. 
1630 - 1640 -England- Puritans Settle in New England forced out by increased Anglicanization of  England.
1631- Germany: Capture and massacre of Magdeburg.
1632- Germany: Hapsburgs defeated at Lutzen; death of Gustavus Adophus.
1634- Germany- Assassination of Wallenstein.
1635- France enters Thirty Years' War against Spain; Treaty of Prague.
1636-1637- France- peasant revolts in south and west. 
1637-  England: Ship Money Case.
1638- France- birth of Louis XIV
1640- England- Short Parliament, April-May.
1640-1660: England: the Long Parliament.
1640- Spain, Portulgal- revolt of Catalans, Portuguese.
1640-1688- Germany: Frederick Willliam, the Great Elector of Brandenburg.
 1641- England- execution of Earl of Stafford; beginning of Irish rebellion.
1642- France- death of Richelieu.
1642-1661- France: Cardinal Mazarin.

                    ENGLISH CIVIL WAR
1642-1646- England- first Civil War.
1643- France- death of Louis XIII- battle of Rocroi 
-regency of Anne of Austria for her son Louis;
1643- France, Spain-  Defeat of Spanish army by French at Rocroi.
1643- Denmark: war with Sweden.
1643- England- death of John Pym.
1643-1715- France: Louis XIV.
1645- England- Execution of William Laud, Archbishop of Cantebury.
1646- France- Swedish and French troops invade Bavaria.

                                  PEACE OF WESTPHALIA.
1648- Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years' War and initiates the Sovereign State System by which no state is to interfere in the internal matters, including the religious policy, of any other.  End of Habsburg Supremacy. Recognition of independent Dutch Republic.
1648-1652- France- civil wars of the Fronde.
1648- England- Second Civil War- Pride's Purge. 

                                       
                                                   CROMWELL

1649 – England: Charles I is executed by Cromwell’s Parliament.
1649-1658- England: rule of Oliver Cromwell. Repression of Ireland.
1649-1653- England: Commonwealth.
1651 - Hobbes and Locke describe new ways to think about government.
1652-1674- England, Holland fight three wars.
1653-1660- England: Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell.
1655-1660- Germany: Brandenburg dominates Prussia in Northern War.
1657 - Germany: Formation of Prussia as a Kingdom.
1658- England- death of Cromwell, succeeded by son Richard.
1659- Spain, France: Peace of the Pyrenees.

                                        ENGLISH RESTORATION
1660- England: Restoration of Charles II. Declaration of Breda.

                                        LOUIS XIV 
1660- France- marriage of Louis XIV to Maria Theresa of Spain.
1661- France- death of Cardinal Mazarin. Louis XIV fomally takes power.
1661-1715: Europe, France: Age of Louis XIV.
1662- England- Bartholomew Ejections begin following Act of Uniformity- expulsion of ministers creates English nonconformity.
1663- France- Louis XIV occupies Papal State of Avignon.
1664- France- Compagnie des Indes founded.
1665-1700- Spain: Charles II.
1667-1668- France: Louis XIV's War of Devolution.
1670- France, England- secret Treaty of Dover. 

1672-1678- France, Holland- Louis XIV's Dutch War; assassination of the DeWitt brothers.
1674- France- Louis XIV invades Franche Comte.
1678- England- Popish plot.
1679- France- first fortress built by Vauban,
1679-1681- England- Exclusion Crisis.
1681-1685-  England- Charles II rules without parliament.
1683- France- death of Colbert.
1685- France- revolcation of Edict of nantes.
1685- England- James II upon death of Charles II.
1682 - Peter the Great in Russia.
1683- Austria: Turks threaten Vienna.
1685: France: Revocation of Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV.
1685-1688- England- James II.
1687 - Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy by Newton is published
1688-1689- England: Glorious Revolution expels out James II and brings in William and Mary.
1688-1702- England: William and Mary. 
1688- Europe: death of Frederick William the Great Elector.
1689-1714- France: Anglo-Dutch and late wars of Louis XIV.
1689-1697- Europe: War of the League of Augsburg between Louis XIV of France and the HRE, Spain, Holland and Savoy. France emerges as the dominant power.
1694- England- Bill of Rights, Mutiny Act, Toileration Act. Death of Queen Mary.
1697- England- Treaty of Ryswick.
1700-1931- Spain: Bourbon rule.
1700-1746- Spain: Philip V.


                RISE OF PRUSSIA
1701-1918- Prussia: Hohenzollern kings. 
1701-1713- Prussia- Frederick I.
1701- England- Act of Settlement.
1702-1714- England: Queen Anne upon death of William III.

                WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION.
1702-1713- England, Europe; War of the Spanish Succession.

1704- England, France- battle of Blenheim.
1707: England, Scotland- Act of Union.
1711-1740- Austria: Charles VI.
1713-1750- Germany: Frederick II of Prussia.
1713-1714- Europe: War of Spanish Succession ends with the Peace of Utrecht and Rastadt. Rise of the English; decline of the Dutch. 

                  RISE OF BRITAIN.
1713 - Pragmatic Sanction,
1714- England- George I of Hanover upon death of Queen Anne.
1714- England: end of the Stuarts. 
1714-1837: England's Hanoverians.
1714-1727- England: George I.à
1715- France- death of Louis XIV 
1715-1774- France:  Louis XV
1720- France: Mississippi Bubble.
1720 - England: South Sea Bubble- The Breaking of the financial ‘Bubbles.’
1721-1742- England- ministry of Walope.


                   LOUIS XV
1723- France: Louis XV takes the throne after regency.
1726- France- Cardinal Fleury is prime minister.
1727-1760- England: George II.
1733 - 1763 -War of the Austrian Succession, French and Indian War and 7 Years War.
1736- England- John Welsley starts Methodist Societies.
1739- England: war of Jenkins' Ear.

                    AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT 
1740-1780- Austria: Maria Theresa.
1740-1786- Germany: Frederick II, the Great, of Prussia. 
1740-1745- Germany-Austria- the Silesian Wars.
1740-1748- Europe: War of the Austrian Succession.
1740-1763- France, England: opponents in colonial wars.
1740-1789- Europe: Enlighttened despotism.
1741- Austria, Germany- Maria Theresa rallies Hungarian nobles against Prussia.
1745- France- Battle of Fontenoy.
1745- Scotland, England- Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Jacobite Rebellion.
1748- Europe- Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. 
1751 - 1772 - The Encyclopedia is published by Diderot.
1756- Europe: diplomatic revolution; the Habsburg-Bourbon alliuance.
1756-1763: Europe; France, Britain, Prussia: the Seven Years' War.
1760-1820- England: George III.
1761- England- resignation of William Pitt.
1762 - Catherine the Great rules Russia
1763 - Europe: Peace of Paris ends 7 Years War
1763 - England: Steam Engine first used in England
1769- England: Watt's steam engine and Arkwright's water fame.
1771- France- parlements abolished by Louos XV.
1772 – 1st Partition of Poland 
1774-1793- France: Louis XVI. 
1774- France- Louis XVI recalls trhe parlements.
1776 - The American Revolution
1776 - Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith explains capitalism
1776-1763- England: American war of Independence.
1778- France: French support Americans in Revolution.
1780s: Germany: cultural revivial. 


1780-1790- Austria: Joseph II. 
1781- Austria: Joseph II promulgates the edict of Tolerance.
1782-1806- England: ministries of William Pitt the Younger.
1783- Russia annexes the Crimea.

                    FRENCH REVOLUTION.
1789 - France: The French Revolution begins.
1791 - Declaration of Pillnitz and the Coalitions 
1792- France: August 10- overthrow of the monarchy Louis XVI. First Republic.
1792-1815- France, Europe: Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
1792-1797- Europe: War of the First Coalition.
1793-1794: France: The Terror 
1794-1799- France: the Directory.
1793- 1814: England, France at war.
1796-1797- France, Austria, Italy: Napoleon's First Italian Campaign.
1797: Europe; France, Austria: Treaty of Campo Formio.
1798-1814- Europe: predominance of French Directory and Consulate and Empire of Napoleon.
1798- England, Ireland- rebellion in Ireland.
1798-1801: Europe: War of the Second Coalition.
1799 - France: Napoleon Takes Power in coup d'etat of Brumaire.
1799-1804- France: the Consulate.
1800 - 1850 - Germany: The Rise of German Nationalism.

                     NAPOLEON AND NAPOLEONIC WARS
1802-1803- Europe: Peace of Amiens. 

1804-1814: Europe, France: Napoleonic Empire. 
1806- Europe, Prussia Prussians defeated at Jena in Germany- end of Holy Roman Empire in Europe.
1806- Germany: the Confederation of the Rhine.
1806-1812- Europe: Napoleon's Continental system.
1807- Europe: Napoleon defeats Russia in East Prussia; alliance with Czar Alexander II at Peace of Tilsit
1807- England: Britain ends its slave trade.
1808-1813- Spain, France- Napoleon attempts conquest of Spain.
1809 -France, Austria: Defeat of Austria by Napoleon.
1809-1811- France: Napoleon at the height of his power.
1812 - England: War of 1812 
1812 - Europe: Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia. 
1813-- Germany, Austria, Europe: German war of Liberation: Napoleon defeated at Leipzig.
1814-1815:  Europe: The Congress of Vienna restates Conservatism in Europe.
1814-1848: Europe: Metternich influential.
1814-1830 France: restoration of the Bourbons, Louis XVIII

1815: England: Corn laws- tarriff on grain imports.
1815 - Europe, France: The Hundred Days and Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo.

                  INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION.
1818 - Europe: Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle
1819- Carlsbad decrees.
1819- England: the Duke of Wellington's Peterloo Massace.
1819 -1850s England, France: Politics- The Isms 
1820- Europe: Congress of Troppau.
1820s - Latin American Independence
1822- Europe: Congress of Vienna.
1823 - The Monroe Doctrine 
1824-1830- France- Charles X
1830- Europe- revolutionary ferment.
1830-1848 - France: Bourgeois Revolution- the July Monarchy.
1830- Belgium- Revolurtion.
1832- England: First reform Bill.
1833- England outlaws slave trade with the Abolition Act.

                         VICTORIAN PERIOD
1837-1901- England: Queen Victoria.
1838-1848- England: Chartist movement.
1839 - Opium Wars in China
1845 - Mexican American War.
1848 - France -February Revolution- established a bourgeois reoublic. In May-June, the Bourgeoisie repressed revolution by the workers. Second Republic.

 1848 - Germany -March Days and the Austrian and German Revolutions

1848- Austria- -attempted revolution- Emperor Ranz Joseph- 1848-1916. 
1848 - The Frankfurt Assembly 
1848 - Switzerland- Federal constitution defines the political system, providing for a centralised government. 
1848 - Europe: Marx and Engels: The Communist Manifesto and Marxism
1848 - Communist Manifesto
1850s - Ottoman Empire Collapsing 
1850-1873- free trade: golden age of British capitalism.
1850 - 1940 - Migration from Europe 
1852- Germany: Bismark.
1852- France: Coup d'etat by Louis Napoleon- Napoleon III- France's Second Empire begins.
1854 - 1856 - Britain, France, Russia- Crimean War
1859-1870- Italy- Italian Unification 
1859- Austria, Italy- Austro-Italian War.
1859 - Origin of the Species by Charles Darwin
1860- Europe, France: free trade with England.
1860-1870- France: Napoleon III's Liberal Empire.
1866-1871- Germany: Unification.
1867- Austria-Hungary- dual monarchy.
1867 -England-  Dominion of Canada separates from Great Britain
1870- First Vatican Council. 
1870-1940- France: Third Republic. 

                     FRANCO PRUSSIAN WAR AND PARIS COMMUNE.
1871 - Germany: Bismarck dominates the German Empire 
1871-1918- Germany's Empire.
1871-1883- Germany- Kulturkampf.
1871 - France: Paris Commune
1874-1880: England: Disraeli P.M.
1874 - Switzerland- Revised constitution allows for the exercise of direct democracy by referendum. 
1877 - Russo-Turkish War 
1878-1880- Germany: Bismark's anti-socialist laws.
1878- Congress of Berlin: Austro-Grman alliance. 
1880s- Europe: rise of socialist parties.
1880-1914 - Europe: Rise and height of Imperialism 

1881- Europe: the triple alliance of France, Britain and Russia.
1883- Germany: Bismark's social insurance laws.
1884- England: extension of suffrage.
1885- Europe, Germany: Berlin conferecne on Africa.
1889- Europe:  Second communist international.
1889- France: Boulanger. 
1894- Europe, France: Franco-Russian alliance.
1894-1906- France: Dreyfus Affair.
1896- Netherlands- male suffrage.
1898-1914- Germany, England- in naval ship building race.
1899-1902- England- the Boer War.
1900 ff- Europe: growth of democracy.
1901-1905- France: Laic Laws separate church and state.
1904 - Russo Japanese War 

1904- Europe, France, England: Anglo French entente.
1905- Germany, France- Morocco crisis.
1905 - Revolution of 1905 and Bloody Sunday in Russia
1906-1911- England: social insurance and parliamentary reform.

  THE TRIPLE ENTENTE
1907- Europe: Triple entente.
1907- Austria- male suffrage.
1908- Europe- Bosnian crisis.
1911- Europe: Agadir Crisis.
1914- England/Ulster: the Ulster Crsisis.
1914 - Europe: Assassination of Francis Ferdinand leads to WWI

                       THE FIRST WORLD WAR.


1914-1918- Europe: World War I.
1914- Europe: Battle of the Marne.
1916- Europe: Battles of Verdun and the Marne.
1916- Europe: battle kof Jutland.
1916-1922- England, Ireland: Irish troubles. 
1917 - Zimmerman Telegram
1917 - Europe- Lusitania sinking brings the US into WWI
1917 - Europe- Revolution of 1917 takes Russia out of war and brings in Communism. 
1918- Britain- limited suffrage for women.
1918 - Treaty of Brest-Litovsk takes Russia out of WWI
1918- Europe- Germany, Austria- Armistice at Compiegne ends WW I. Fall of German and Ausro-Hungarian Empires.
1919 - Europe- Treaty of Versailles and Wilson’s 14 Points 
1919-  Europe- Peace of Paris. 
1919- Euope-  further spread of democracy.

                   RISE OF FASCISM
1922-1943- Italy- Mussolini and Fascism.
1922 - Formation of USSR.
1922- Britain, Ireland: declaration of Irish Free State.
1923- Europe: Rhur Crisis- French occupy he Ruhr.
1923- Germany: crippling inflation.
1923: Europe:  Pan European Union society formed; supporters include Konrad Adenauer and Georges Pompidou, later leaders of Germany and France.
1924- Britain: first labour coalition government.
1924 - Rise of Stalin
1924 - Dawes Plan
1925 - Europe- Locarno Pacts
1926 - England: English General Strike 
1928- England: full suffrage for women.
1928 – Stalin’s Purges and 5 Year Plans
1928-1974- Portugal: Salazar dictatorship.

              THE DEPRESSION; THE RISE OF DICTATORS.
1929 - Europe: Great Depression begins.
1929-1930- Europe: Great Depression. Decline in democracy; rise of dictators.
1929-1931- Britain: Second Labour government.
1931-1940- Britain: National Government.
1931- Britain: leaves gold standard.
1931- Spain: Spanish Revolution.
1932- Britain: adopts tarriff protection.
1932 - FDR Elected 

             THE NAZIS
1933 - Germany- Reichstag Fire and Rise of the Nazi Party

1933-1945- Germany- Adolph Hitler. Third Reich.
1933- Germany- quits League of Nations.
1934: Austria: first Austrian Crisis.
1934: France: Paris-- Stavisky Riots.
1935 - Germany- Nuremburg Laws.
1936- Germany- militarizes Rhineland.
1936-1939- Spain, France- Popular Fronts in Spain and France.
1936-1939- Spain: Civil War.
1936: Britain: abdication of Edward VIII; coronation of George VI.
1936 - Spain: The Spanish Civil War

             PRELUDE TO WORLD WAR TWO
1937-  Europe- Italy-Germany-Japan- axis powers.
1938 - England, Germany: Munich Crisis and appeasement.
1938: Austria, Germany: Anchluss: Germany annexes Austria.
1938-1939- Germany annexes Czecholslovakia.
1939- Germany- Nazi Soviet Pact.
1939-1945 - Nazi invasion of Poland triggers World War II. 
1939-1945- Britain, Germany at war.
1939-45 - Switzerland- Federal Council issues a declaration of neutrality at start of World War II. Refuses to join United Nations. 
1939-1975- Spain: Franco dictatorship.
 1940- Britain: Churchill replaces Chamberlain; Battle of Britain.
1940-1944- Germany dominates Western Europe.
1940-1945- Europe- German domination- racist policy, liebensraum, extermination of the Jews.
1940- France falls to Germany. 
1941 - England- Lend-Lease with America Begins
1941- Europe: Allied bombing cammpaign against Germany. 
1942: Europe: France:  Charles de Gaulle calls for a union.
1943 - Europe, Germany: Stalingrad 
1943:  Europe, Italy: Allies invade Italy; fall of Mussolini.
1944 - Europe: D-Day
1944-1945- Europe:  Allies liberate Western Europe. Russian offensive against Germany.

1945- Europe, Germany- Allied occupation of Germany. 
1945- Europe: deaths of Hitler and Mussolini.

                                   ARRANGEMENTS FOR PEACE

 
1945 -Europe: Potsdam Conference
1945 -Europe:  Formation of the United Nations 
1945 -Britain: Labour election victory.
1945-1951- Britain- Labour government. 
1945- Europe: United Nations established.
1945- Italy- elections- beginning of Christian Democratic Coalitions.
1945-1958- France: Fourth Republic. 

                                 STALIN TAKES EASTERN EUROPE.
1945-1946- Europe, Germany- Stalin occupies Eastern Germany; West splits from East.
1945-1946- Europe: female suffrage in France, Italy, Belgium.
1945-47- Europe: Cold War begins.

THE MARSHALL PLAN
1945-1953- Europe:  US Marshall Plan.
1946- Italy- Italian Republic.
1946- Europe, Germany: Nuremburg Trials.

1946: Europe: European Union of Federalists forms to campaign for a United States of Europe.

1946:  Europe: Sept- Churchill calls for a United States of Europe based around France and Germany to increase chance of peace.

1946- France-  the Monet Plan.
1946-1953- Italy- De Dasperi premier.
1947- Europe: signing of various peace treaties between different nations.
1947-1949- Britain, Netherlands:  End of British rule in India; end of Dutch empire in SE Asia. 

                                 TWO GERMANIES
1948 - Germany: Berlin Blockade and airlift.
1948- Italy- elections: Cmmunists.
1948 – Israel is created by the UN
1948 - Chaos in the Middle East
1948: Europe: Jan.- Benelux Customs Union formed by Belgium, Luxembourg and Netherlands.
1948: Europe: Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) created to organise the Marshall Plan; some argue this is not unified enough.
1949- Germany: Federal Republic in West Germany; German Democratic Republic in East Germany.
1949-1963- Germany: Konrad Adenauer chancellor- economic expansion..

                                FOUNDATION OF NATO.

 
1949- Europe: April- NATO founded.
1949- Europe: May- Council of Europe formed to discuss closer co-operation.
1950: Europe: May- Schuman Declaration (named after the French Foreign Minister) proposes French and German coal and steel communities.
1950 - The Korean War

                                   WESTERN EUROPE UNITES ON COAL AND STEEL.
1951: Europe: April- European Coal and Steel Community Treaty signed by Germany, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, Belgium and Netherlands.
1951-1964- Britain- Concervative governments.
1952- Germany: end of Allied occupation of  West Germany.
1952:  Europe: May- European Defence Community (EDC) Treaty.
1952- Britain: Elizabeth II succeeds George VI
1953 -Europe: The Death of Stalin and Hardening of the Cold War.

                            THE COLD WAR.
1953- Europe: economic recovery in Western Europe.
1954- Europe: Wetsern European Union; West German rearmament.

1953: Europe:  East Berlin Uprising.
1954:  Europe: August- France rejects the EDC treaty. 
1954- France- beginning of war in Algeria.
1956- England, France- Suez Crisis.
1955- Austria: peace treaty.
1957- England: tests hydrogen bomb.

                           THE EUROPEAN COMMON MARKET.
1957   Europe: 25 March: Treaties of Rome signed: creates Common Market / European Economic Community (EEC) and European Atomic Energy Community.
1958:  Europe: Jan 1- Treaties of Rome come into effect
1958-1969- France:  DeGaulle President.
1958: France: Fifth Republic.
1959- Europe, Britain: British back free trade association.
1959 - Switzerland- Founder-member of European Free Trade Association (Efta).
Four party government system comes into being in a political agreement know as the "magic formula" which lasts for decades and brings a large measure of political stability.
1960- Belgium withdraws from Congo.
1960- France becomes a nuclear power.
1960s - Europe: African Pullout 
1960s- Spain industrializes.

                           THE BERLIN WALL.


1961- Europe, Germany: building of Berlin Wall.
1961:  Europe: Britain tries to join the EEC but is rejected.
1962 - Cuban Missile Crisis
1962- France withdraws from Algeria.
1963 - Nuclear Arms Treaty.
1963- Europe- France, Germany- January- Franco-German Treaty of Friendship; they agree to work together on many policy issues.

                          FRANCE BLOCKS BRITAIN FROM COMMON MARKET.
1963- Europe, France, Britain: France vetoes British entry to Common Market.
1963-1968- Germany: Erhard succeeds Adenauer in continuing Christian Democratic coalition.
1965 - The Vietnam War 
1965- France: DeGaulle re-elected.
1966:  Europe: January- Luxembourg Compromise gives majority vote on some issues, but leaves national veto on key areas.

1967:  Europe: British application again rejected.
1968:  Europe: July- Full customs union created in the EEC, ahead of schedule.

                         STUDENT DEMONSTRATIONS- MAY '68.
1968:  France- May- massive student and labour demonstrations nearly bring down government.
1968:  France tests hydrogen bomb. 
1969:  Europe: December- Hague summit to “relaunch” the Community, attended by heads of state.
1969 - Moon Landing 
1969-1974- Germany- Willy Brandt ends Christian Democrat government, begins Social Democrat coalition.
1969-1981- France- DeGaulle is succeeded by Pompidou and then by Giscard D'Estaing.
1969- England; Northern Ireland: resurgence of Catholic-Protestant clashes.
1970-1974- England: Conservative governments.
1970: Europe: Werner Report argues economic and monetary union possible by 1980.
1970:  Europe: April- Agreement for EEC to raise own funds through levies and customs duties.
1970- Italy enters a period of economic and political instabililty.
1972- Europe: October-: Paris Summit agrees plans for future, including economic and monetary union and ERDF fund to support depressed regions.

   EXPANSION OF THE EEC.
1973  Europe: Denmark, Ireland and UK join the EEC
1973- Germany joins UN.
1974- Europe: Economic recession.
1974: Portugal: revolution ends Salazar dictatorship.
1974-1979- England: Labour governments.
1974-1982- Germany: helmut Schmidt heads Social Democratic coalition government.
1975 - Helsinki Conference on Human Rights.
1975- Spain: death of Franco followed by Constitutional Monarchy.
1975 Europe: March: First meeting of the European Council, where heads of state gather to discuss events.
1976-78 - Italy- Communist election gains lead to voice in policy making.

                         THE RED BRIGADES.
1978 - Italy- Former Prime Minister Aldo Moro kidnapped and murdered by fanatical left-wing group, the Red Brigades. Abortion legalised.
 1979 Europe: Greece admitted.The first European Parliament elections take place and the Single European Currency Unit was introduced (later to become the Euro)
1979: Europe: First direct elections to European Parliament.
1979- Europe: March: Agreement to create the European Monetary System.

MARGARET THATCHER.

1979- England: return of Conservatives with PM Margaret Thatcher.
1981- Europe, Greece- Greece joins EEC
1981- France: President Francois Mitterand elected with socialist majority in assembly.
1982- Spain joins NATO.
1982- Germany:  Helmut Kohl heads Christian Democrat coalition.
1982- Italy: 43rd post-war cabinet.
1984- Europe: February: Draft Treaty on European Union produced.
1984: England- Year long miners strike over pit closures.
1986:  Europe, Portugal, Spain- Portugal and Spain join EEC
1986 - Chernobyl nuclear meltdown in Ukraine. 
1986- England- major indistries privatized.
1987- Europe: 1 July: Single European Act comes into effect.
1988- France:  Mitterand re-elected.

                                    FALL OF THE BERLIN WALL.


1989 - Europe; Germany: The Berlin Wall falls and Communism ends.
1990- Germany- leads the new, unified german.
1991- German capital moved from Bonn to Berlin. 
1991-  Europe: the EEC is renamed the European Union (EU)
1991 - Gulf War
1991- England, Northern Ireland- 10 IRA militants die in Northern Ireland hunger strike.
1991- Italy- Communist Party renamed Party of the Democratic Left.
1992- Austria- Kurt Waldheim replaced by Thomas Klestil as president.
1992- Italy- Investigations into high level corruption.
-anti-Mafia prosecutor Giovanni Falcone killed in car bombing. 
1992- Germany- former E.German leader Eric Honecker brought to Berlin on political charges.
1992- England: election of conservative PM John Major.

                  THE MAASTRICHT TREATY. 

1992-  Europe: February: Maastricht Treaty, Treaty on European Union signed.
1992- Denmark rejects Maastricht Treaty on greater European integration.
1992- Belgium- Ratifies Maastricht.
1993- Denmark- Prime Minister Schlueter resigns after allegedly lying over a scandal involving Tamil refugees; social democrat Poul Nyrup Rasmussen becomes prime minister.
1993- Holland- allows regulated euthanasia by doctors.
-Denmark approves Maastricht after being granted opting out clauses.
1993- Belgium: constituiton divides Belgium into Flanders, Wallonia and Brussells.
1993: Europe: Single Market begins.
1993- Germany approves Maastricht Treaty. 
1993- Europe: 1 November: Maastricht Treaty comes into effect.1995- Austria, Finland and Sweden join the EU
1993- Italy- socialist party leader Craxi steps down in bribery scandal, flees; tried and convicted in absentia.
1994- Germany- last of Russian and Allied troops leave Berlin.

ITALY ELECTS BERLUSCONI
1994- Italy- March- Freedom Alliance wins election. Coalition of Silvio Berlusconi and his Forza Italia, the Northern League and the neo-Fascist National Alliance, collapses in late 1994 following clashes with anticorruption magistrates and a battle with trade unions over pension reform.
1994- Denmark- Poul Nyrup Rasmussen returns to power in general election.
1994- Holland -Labour Party head Wim Kok elected Prime Minister with 3-arty coalition.
1995- Europe, Austria- joins EU- but coalition government collapses over the budget and over criteria for joining the EU monetary Union.
1995: Europe: Spain joins EEC 
1995 - Swiss Banking Association announces - after pressure from Jewish groups - it has uncovered dormant pre-1945 bank accounts containing millions of dollars. 
1995- France:  Jacques Chirac elected president, ending 14 years of Socialist presidency.  France receives international condemnation after it launches a series of nuclear tests in the Pacific.
1995- Spain:  Leader of opposition Popular Party Jose Maria Aznar survives a car bomb blast.
1995-1996-Italy- Lamnberto Dini heads government of technocrats, brings in austerity.
1996- Italy- Romano Prodi, leading Olive Tree Alliance, becomes Prime Minister.
1996- Austria- new coaltion formed by Social Democrats with People's Party.
1996: Spain:   Jose Maria Aznar elected Prime Minister,

1997- Ausrtria- Finance Minister Viktor Klima takes over as Vranitzky resigns as chancellor and leader of Social Democrats.

1997: Spain:  thousands of Spaniards protest ETA after separatist group kidnaps and kills Basque councillor.
1997- Italy- Massimo D'Alema becomes Prime Mionister after Prodi government loses confidence vote.
1997- France:  Lionel Jospin becomes prime minister in "cohabitation' power sharing with president.
1997- Europe: October: Treaty of Amsterdam makes minor changes.

  BRITAIN ELECTS TONY BLAIR.

1997: England: May- Tony Blair elected at head of a Labour government.
1998- Holland- Wim Kok re-elected Prime Minister.
1998- Austria- Klestil re-elected president.
1998- Denmark: Poul Nyrup Rasmussen again returned to power.
1998- Northern Ireland, England: April: devolved Assembly for Northern Ireland brought in with Good Friday Accord.
1998 August - Swiss banks agree $1.25bn compensation deal with Holocaust survivors and families. 
1998- Germany: SPD leader Gerhard Schroeder elected Chancelor to lead Red-Green coalition.
-Germany announces compensation for former slave workers under Nazis.
1998- Spain: Judge Jorge Bathasar issues arrest warrnt against Chilean dictator Genral Pinochet who had taken refuge in England, though England's Jack Straw allows him to return to Chile in 2000.
1999- Europe: 1 January: Euro introduced in eleven counties.
1999- England decides not to adopt the Euro.
1999 Europe: 1 May: Treaty of Amsterdam comes into effect.
1999- Belgium:Jean-Luc Dehaene's coalition resigns after heavy election losses. Coalition led by Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt takes office. 

                                     
                       AUSTRIA: HAIDER'S FAR RIGHT PARTY.
1999- Austria- October -  Joerg Haider's far right Freedom Party wins 27% of vote in national elections, equal second with centre right People's Party though Social Democrats remain largest party.

2000- coaltion of People's Party and Social Democrats breaks down; People's party approaches Freedom Party  Freedom Party becomes part of the government, sparking international and national protest. EU imposes diplomatic sanctions when People's Party head Wolfgang Schuessel becomes chancellor with Susanne Riess-Passer of the Freedom Party as his deputy. Haider, seen as too extreme- hands over party leadership to Riess-Passer.
August- state companies agree to pay $65 million to compensate Holocaust survivors.
September- EU ends diplmatic isolation of Austria, saying it achieves nothing.
2000- Denmark- rejects Euro.
-bridge and tunnel links Copenhagen to Sweden.
2000- Italy- poor regional election returns oust D'Alema. Giuliano Amato becomes Prime Minister. 
May/June - A centre-right coalition, led by Silvio Berlusconi of the Forza Italia party, wins the general elections.  Berlusconi forms new coalition government which includes the leaders of two right-wing parties, Gianfranco Fini of the National Alliance and Umberto Bossi of the Northern League as well as the pro-European Renato Ruggiero who becomes foreign minister.
2000- Germany- Angela Merkel heads CDU after Helmut Kohl and and CDU leader Schaeubel fall in illegal party funding scandal.
2000- France: September - Chirac in corruption scandal; dismisses allegations.

SPAIN- RESURGENCE OF BASQUE ETA.

2000- Spain: ETA responsible for Madrid Car bombings.
-Aznar's Popular Party wins massive general election victory
2001- Holland-  euthanasia legalized with doctors under strict conditions.
-4 gay couples leagally married in Amsterdam- gay adoption of children legalized.
2001- Austria.
2001- Denmark- Fogh Rasmussen elected president of right-wing coalition on ledge to limit immigration and cut taxes. 
2001-- Germany- march- European Court of Human Rights decides three former East German Communist leaders should serve jail time for allowing shooting of attempted
escapees into W Germany.
November- Schroeder wins non-confidence motion over decision to send 4,000 troops to Afghanistan.
2001- Italy- May- Berlusconi's centre-right Forza Italia, a coaltion including the Northern League and the national Alliance- wins elections.
Oct- vote approves move for a constitution giving Itlay's regions more autonomy.
2001- Spain- parliament gives recognition to the Maqui who held out against Franco after 1939.2001- England: foot and mouth disease plagues British cattle.
2001: Europe: Treaty of Nice signed; extends majority voting.
2001- Italy- foreign minister Renato Ruggiero resigns because of cabinet scepticism over EU.
2001- Holland- Euro replaces gilder.
2002- Holland-Wim Kok's government forced to resign after revelation of Dutch failure to stop massacre at Srebrenica during Bosnian War. May- leader of anti-immigration party, Pym Fortuyn is murdered as his party comes second in elections. Jan Peter Balkanende's Christian Democatic Appeal comes first.  July-  Balkenende steps up as prime minister in centre-right coalition with List Pim Fortuyn Party and the liberal People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) Oct- Balkenende's government collapses due to infighting with the Fortuyn party.
2002- Austria- September - Coalition collapses as Vice Chancellor and Freedom Party leader Riess-Passer and two Freedom Party ministers resign in power struggle with Joerg Haider.

November- Scheussel's People's Party makes large gains at expense of Freedom Party.
2002- Germany- March- government passes controversial bill limiting number of non-EU skilled immigrants. -Kohl wins in effort to keep closed files kept on him and other Germans by the Stasi, the former East German police. -Sept- Schoeder saved in federal elections by Green supporters after losing much of his majority.
2002- Belgium: decriminalizes euthanasia.
2002- Spain defied by Morocco over Perejil.  Both clountries withdraw, leaving island unoccupied.
-court suspends Basque separatist party because of alleged loinks to ETA.
2002: Europe; Spain hosts EU summit amid widespread strikes against rediction of unemployment benefits.
2002- Europe: the Euro is introduced in 12 of the EU member states including France.

FRANCE ELECTS JACQUES CHIRAC.

2002- France: May-  Jacques Chirac re-elected president, hammering National Front leader Jean-Marie Le Pen in second round of voting. Le Pen's showing in first round sent fears though France and Europe and prompted French voters to launch mass street demonstrations. -Lionel Jospin, the left-wing presidential contender, knocked out by Le Pen in the first round, resigns  premiership and Socialist Party leadership.

June - massie victory in legislative elections for centre-right UMP. Jean-Pierre Raffarin's centre-right government is confirmed in office, bringing an end to the "cohabitation" years when Chirac had to work with Socialist Prime Minister Jospin. November - large public sector strikes over government privatisation plans bring country to a halt.

2002- Denmark: Rasmussen government takes controversial measures to reduce immigration.
2003- Holland- January- Christian Democratic Appeal Party narrowly wins elections. May- Centre-right coalition sworn in led by Balkenende for second term. Coalition comprises Balkenende's Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and Democrats-66.

2003- Europe: 1 February: Treaty of Nice comes into effect.
2003- Austria- Social democrats in talks with Green Party as People's party talks again with Freedom Party. May- strike against pension reform.
2003- Germany- Constitutional refuses to uphold Government ban on Neo Nazi Party because government had planted agent provocateurs,
2003: England: March- joins the US invasion of Iraq.
2003- France- March- changes in constitution allow devolition of pwers to local government.

                                    BRITAIN'S BLAIR AND THE INVASION OF IRAQ.
2003: England: Tony Blair admits that Saddam Hussein had no weapons of mass destruction- the basis for invading Iraq.

2003- Belgium committed to closing its seven nuclea reactors by 2025 and not constructing new ones.
2003- Italy- May-June- Belusconi stands trial in Milan on corruption charges until law is passed making Prime Minister and other posts of state immune from prosecution.
2003 October - Switzerland- The right-wing Swiss People's Party (SVP) becomes the biggest force in parliament after winning almost 28% of the vote in general elections.
2004- Italy-Jan- Top consitutional court throws out immunity law. Belusconi's trial for corruption resumes in April.
2004- Austria- April- Heinz Fischer elected president.
2004-  Italy- December- Berlusconi leaed of corruption.
2004- Germany: Horst Koehler, backed by CDU elected president.
-August-September- mass protests in eastern Germany against cuts to social benefits.
2004: Denmark-  February- Rasumussen re-ected prime minister at head of right wing coaltion. Far right party wins two more seats.
2004: England: 1.8 million Muslims in Britain
2004: France:  March- March - President Chirac's UMP thrown out in regional elections.

2004- France- -November - Nicolas Sarkozy becomes leader of UMP.
2004- Holland- Artist Theo Van Gogh is murdered by an Islamist for projecting the Koran onto a woman's body in an art work about Islam's treatment of women.
2004- Belgium- far right Flemish party banned by high court for being racsist. The party reconstitutes itself under a new name.

                MADRID TRAIN BOMBINGS.

2004: Spain: Islamists terrorists bomn Atocha train station, killing 191.
-Zapatero elected Prime Minister- Spanish troops withdrawn from Iraq.

                 FURTHER EXPANSION OF EU. 
2004- Europe: On May 1st 10 new member states join the EU. On June 10th, European Parliament elections take place in the UK -Draft EU constitution signed. 1 May: Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovak Republic, Czech Republic, Slovenia join EU

2005- Austria- Haider's new Alliance for the Future of Austria splits away from Feedom Party.Apri
May- parliament ratifies EU constitution.

                    GERMANY: STASI FILES OPENED.
2005- Germany- restricted access allowed to Helmut Khol's Stasi files. -May- ratifies EU constitution.
-July- Schroeder calls early elections. -September- close election forces coalition talks.
-November- CDU's Angela Merkel becomes Chancellor after coaltion formed between SPD and CDU.
2005- Holland- July- a radical islamist is convicted and jailed for the murder or artists Thro Van Gogh.
June- Dutch reject EU consitution.
2005- Italy- ratifies EU constitution. April- Belusconi's Forza Italia defeated in regional polls. Berusconi resigns but is then asked to form a new government.

2005- Belgium: approves draft of EU constitution. 
2005- Belgium: government plans for pension reform prompts nationwide strike action.

                      FRENCH UNIONS REJECT CUTS.
2005- France: January - Trade unions lanuch wave of public sector strikes against proposed labour, pension and welfare reforms.
2005- France- May- Referendum opposess plan for EU constitution prompting resignation of Prime Minister Raffarin.

2005- France: October - One-day national strike in protest at welfare reforms, low pay and privatisation plans.
2005 September -Switzerland-  Referendum vote goes in favour of opening job market to workers from the 10 newest European Union countries.

                     DANISH CARTOONS OF MOHAMMED.
2005- Denmark- Cartoons on the Prophet Mohammed outrage Muslims and spark protest.

                                      MUSLIM RIOTS AROUND PARIS.
2005- France: Oct-Nov-  in poor, largely Muslim and African suburbs of  north-east Paris hit by riots after two youths of North African origin, pursued by police, are electrocuted in an electricity substation. Interior Minister Sarkozy calls them 'scum' before bringing in emergency measures to end the riots.
2005- England- Tony Blair reelected: first Labour politician elected prime minister for three terms .
2005- England: July- Four Pakistani suicide bombers kill 55 people in London Underground.

2005: England: Northern Ireland:  IRA gives up armed struggle for a united Ireland
2005: Europe: Draft constitution rejected by voters in France and the Netherlands.
2005- Europe; England- UK takes its turn as President of the European Council of Ministers
2005- Spain: Feb- ETA stops attacks on elected officials. -June- Madrid car bomb kills 40.
-government legalizes gay marriage as well as granting hays adoption and inheritance rights.


  GERMANY ELECTS MERKEL.
2005- Germany- November- Angela Merkel elected chancellor.
2006   Denmark- January - February - Cartoon depictions of the Muslim prophet Muhammad, published by a Danish newspaper in 2005, spark belated mass protests among Muslims in a number of countries as well as unofficial boycotts of Danish goods.

2006- Holland- February- parliament agrees to send another 1,400 troops to NATO-led  mission in Afghanistan. June-July- Balkenende government collapses over immigration policy as PM Balkenende cobbles temporary minority government. -Durtch cabinet supports plans to ban the Burqa in public places.

                                      AUSTRIA JAILS IRVING FOR HOLOCAUST DENIAL. 
2006- Austria- Vienna court sentences author David Irving to two years for Holocaust denial.
Oct- Social Democrats under Alfred Gusenbauer and Conservatives form coalition after SD defeats ruling Conservatives in elections.  
2006: Denmark: January- newspaper publishes cartoons mocking the prophet Mohammed igniting world-wide Muslim protests.

2006: Spain: ETA declares ceasefire- but Madrid Airport bombing ends ceasefire and peace negotiations.-over 20,000 illigral migrants arrive from Africa in Canary Islands.
-head of Spanish armed forces fired after suggesting army might intervene if Catalonia gained tooo much authonomy.
2006- France: March-April - Youth employment laws cause mass demonstrations in Paris and other cities before legislation is scrapped.
2006- Belgium- police raid barracks and military installations in search of extreme right group and make arrests for intent to destabilize Belgian institutions.
2006- Germany- Parliament approves extensive reforms speeding up efficiency and decision-making.
August- police discover unexploded bombs on local trains near Cologne.

  ITALY: MAJOR MAFIA ARREST.
2006- Italy- April- May. Romano Prodi wins elections at head of centre-left coaltion.
-Bernardo Provenzano, head of Sicilian Mafia arrested by Italiam police.
May- Giorgio Napolitano, former Communist leader is elected President.
June- parliament throws out proposed reforms e mpowering regions and post of Prime Minister.
2007- Holland- Feburary- Bakenende sworn in with 3 party centrist coalition.
2007- Denmark will pull 470 troops out of Iraq in August.
-November- Prime Ministrer Fogh Rasmussen elected to another term in office.

              BLAIR RESIGNS IN BRITAIN. SARKOZY ELECTED IN FRANCE.                          
2007- England: Tony Blair resigns and is succeeded by Gordon Brown

2007- France- May - Nicolas Sarkozy,  former interior minister and leader of ruling conservative UMP, wins  decisive majority in second round of presidential election. June -  UMP wins parliamentary elections with a reduced majority. Party insists on mandate to carry out reforms. -Mr Sarkozy delivers on pre-election promise to name women to half the posts in the new cabinet, bringing in people from across the political divide. Aug- France signs major arms deal with Libya.


September - Legislation tightening entry rules for relatives of immigrants is passed. November - Civil servants and workers protest againstSarkozy's planned cuts in pay and jobs, and reform of pension benefits. Widespread disruption of public services.
2007- Belgium- June- Prime Minister Guy Verhovstadt resigns after his rulign coaltion loses elections. Stays on as caretaker as he attempts to form another coalition.
-September-  Belgium is 100 days without a government.
-December-  Verhovstadt reappointed Prime Minister for interim government.

                      MAASTRICHT TREATY SIGNED.
2007- Europe: Treaty of Maastricht signed- opening the way to monetary union.
2007- Europe: Bulgaria and Romania set to join the EU
2007:  Europe: Lisbon Treaty signed, this modified the constitution until it was deemed a sufficient compromise; Bulgaria and Romania join.
2007 September - Switzerland- Row over Swiss People's Party's ''kick out the black sheep'' poster aimed at deporting foreigners who commit crimes.
2007 December - Swiss People's Party (SVP) quits the governing coalition after one of its leaders, Christoph Blocher, is forced from his cabinet seat
2007- Spain: several found guilty and sentenced for 2004 Madrid train bombings.
-government passes bill formally denouncing the Franco regime and all symbols and memorials to it.
2008- Austria- Josef Fritzel sentenced to life for keeping his daughter prisoner for 24 years and fathering children with her- resulting in push to toughen laws on sexual abuse.
July- Conservatives force election by withdrawing from coalition with Social Democrats.
Sept- Social Democrats win elections but SDs and People's Party lose heavily to parties of the far right.
Oct- Future of Austria Party Haider killed in car crash.
Dec- Social Democrats and People's Party form coaltion government.               
2008- Italy- January- Prime Minister Prodi forced to resign in non-confodence vote.
April- Belusconi elected premier in national elections. August- Berlusconi finalizes deal investing in Libya as part of pology for Italian treatment of Libya in colonial period.
November- Italy falls into recession.
2008- Denmark- Feb- Islamist plot uncovered against one of the cartoonists who mocked Mohammed.
2008- Spain- March -governing Socialist Workers' Party wins in parliamentary elections.
-umemployment rises to 11.4%.
2008- Germany- on Israel's 60th annoversary, Angela Merkel makes historic speech in Knesset, first time German head of state has ever made an address in Israel.
Octoner- government passes $68 billion bailout plan for major German bank. Germany also shares in $1.8 trillion EU plan to prop up European economy.
November- Germany falls into recession.
2008: France: February - France formally ratifies Lisbon Treaty on reform of European Union.
2008- Belgium- new government headed by Yves Leterme sworn in.
-July- Leterme offers to resign after failing to reach power-sharing government between French and Durch-speaking parts of country. King Albert II asks him to stay on.
2008: Europe: Ireland: June Irish voters reject Lisbon Treaty.
2008- Belgium-September- Together with The Netherlands and Luxembourg, Belgium agrees to inject funds into the ailing financial group, Fortis. Dutch operation later breaks away, weakening the Fortis group.
Government announces agreement with France and Luxembourg to rescue embattled Dexia bank, the world's biggest lender to local governments.-October - Amid a worsening global financial crisis, Fortis financial group holdings in Belgium and Luxembourg is rescued by French bank BNP Paribas, which buys 75 percent of the group's shares. The deal creates one of the continent's biggest savings banks. 
-December- Prime Minister Yves Leterme resigns over scandal about Fortis recue.

                           2008 MARKET CRASH.
2008- Europe:  stock market crash worldwide, triggered by excesses of US sub-prime mortgage lenders and collapse Of najor US banks.

2008: Europe: October - European governments pledge up to 1.8 trillion euros as part of co-ordinated plans to shore up their financial sectors, hit hard by the global financial crisis. France says it will inject 10.5bn euros into the country's six largest banks.
2008- England: The British economy goes into a recession after 16 years of growth.
2008 October - Austria- The leader of the far-right Alliance for the Future of Austria, Joerg Haider, is killed in a car crash.
2008 November - Denmark- Greenland referendum approves plans to seek more autonomy from Denmark and a greater share of oil revenues off the island's coast.
2008- England- Otober- The British economy shrinks for the first time in 16 years and the pound has its biggest one-day drop against the dollar since 1971 on Oct 24

December- The London stock market loses 31% in 2008, the worst loss in 24 years
2008 December - Austria New coalition government made up of the centre-left Social Democrats (SPO) and the conservative People's Party is sworn in, two months after snap elections. SPO leader Werner Faymann becomes chancellor. 
2009 January - Swiss economy officially goes into recession.
2009 March - Switzerland's government announces it will relax its rules on banking secrecy to allow Swiss financial institutions to co-operate with international investigations into tax evasion.

                     DUTCH POLITICIAN WILDERS TRIED FOR INCITING HATRED


2009- Holland- Court orders Geet Wilders to stand trial for incting hatred by making a film tracing the Koran to Muslim extremism. May- 7 people killed in parade during unsuccessful attack on the Dutch royal family. June- -far-right Freedom Party of Geert Wilders, gains second  place in European elections in Netherlands, winning 15% of the vote.
2009- Belgium- Herman Von Rompuy made Prime Minister, inheriting mostl of Leterme's coalition.
November- Leterme returns after Rompuy quits for position on European Council.
2009- Italy- earthquake hits Abruzzo, killing hundreds, leaving thousands homeless.
October- law giving Berlusconi immunity from prosecution is overturned in Constitutional Court.

               FRANCE COMPROMISES IN LIMITS TO BURKA
2009- France: Government plans commission on limits to use of the burka in France after Sarkozy said it undermines dignity of citizens.

2009- Sept.- England- The British stock market posts the best three months in 25 years
2009: Europe: October- Irish voters accept Lisbon Treaty.
-Lisbon Treaty comes into effect, amending Treaty of Maaastrict.

               SPANISH UNEMPLOYMENT SOARS
2009: Spain: unemployment soars to 19% by November.
2009- Germany- February- govrnment passes $68 billion natial financial rescue plan.
September- Merkel reelected by Centre-right CDU-CSU coaltion.
October- Merkel's extends coalition to include pro-business Free Democrat party.
2009 November - Swiss voters approve referendum initiative banning the construction of minarets. 
2009- Denmark- December- Denmark hosts Copenhagen summit-which ends without binding commitments to deal with climate change.

             EUROPEAN UNION FINANCIAL CRISIS.  

2010- In January, a European Union report condemns sever irregularities in Greek accounting procedures. Greece's budget deficit in 2009 is revised upwards to 12.7%, from 3.7%, and more than four times the maximum allowed by EU rules.

-The European Central Bank dismisses speculation that Greece will have to leave the EU.
-European Union: In February, Greece unveils a series of austerity measures aimed at curbing the deficit.
-On 11 February, the EU promises to act over Greek debts and tells Greece to make further spending cuts. The austerity plans spark strikes and riots in the streets.
-Concern starts to build about all the heavily indebted countries in Europe - Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain
-The eurozone and IMF agree a safety net of 22bn euros to help Greece - but no loans.

                            SPANISH PROTEST AUSTERITY

2010 February - Spain- Thousands of workers demonstrate against government spending cuts and plans to raise the retirement age by two years to 67 - the first mass labour protests since the governing Socialist Workers' Party came to power in 2004. 
-In April, following worsening financial markets and more protests, eurozone countries agree to provide up to 30bn euros in emergency loans.
-Finally, on 2 May, the eurozone members and the IMF agree a 110bn-euro bailout package to rescue Greece.
-The euro continues to fall and other EU member state debt starts to come under scrutiny, starting with the Republic of Ireland.

A BAILOUT FOR IRELAND.
-In November, the EU and IMF agree to a bailout pakage for the Irish Republic totalling 85bn euros. The Irish Republic soon passes the toughest budget in the country's history. 
European Union- September - EU Justice Commissioner Viviane Reding urges the European Commission to take legal action against France over its deportations of the Roma, calling it a "disgrace". The threat of legal action is lifted after France pledges to implement a 2004 EU directive on freedom of movement.(BBC).
September-October - Hundreds of thousands turn out in protest against government plans to raise retirement age to 62. 

                             GREECE SLIDING TOWARD BANKRUPTCY. 
Greece- In March, Mr Papandreou continues to insist that no bailout is needed. The euro continues to fall against the dollar and the pound.
-Greek borrowing costs reach yet further record highs. The EU announces that the Greek deficit is even worse than thought.
2010- Denmark- January- Somali charged with attempt on the life of the cartoonist who ridiculed Mohammed.

2010 January -Italy- Pope Benedict calls on Italians to respect the rights of illegal migrants. The call came after a wave of violence against African farm workers in southern Italy which left some 70 people injured. 
2010 Italy- March - Mr Berlusconi's coalition makes strong gains from the centre-left in regional polls. Mr Berlusconi splits with his former political ally, speaker of parliament Gianfranco Fini, who sets up rival centre-right party Future and Freedom for Italy (FLI).  
2010- Germany- March- four Islamist militants convicted of planning to bomb US targets in Germany.
May- public angered by $22 billion bailout plan for Greece.
-Merkel defeated in regional elections, losing majority in upper house.
-President Koehler resigns after controversial remarks about overseas German military missions.
2010 April - Belgium- Government collapses after Flemish liberal Open VLD party quits five-party coalition in row over francophone voting rights in Flemish areas, triggering early parliamentary elections in June. 
2010 April -Austria-  President Fischer is re-elected.
2010 May - Germany's parliament votes to approve a 22.4bn euro German contribution to bail out debt-ridden Greece, prompting widespread public anger.
-German Chancellor Angela Merkel's governing centre-right coalition suffers a defeat in regional elections in North-Rhine Westphalia, losing its majority in the upper house of parliament.

                                    SPANISH UNEMPLOYMENT OVER 20%
2010 May - Spain- Unemployment rate climbs to over 20% for first time in nearly 13 years. Parliament approves 15bn-euro (£13bn) austerity package.
2010- England- May- The Conservatives win elections with David Cameron Prime Minister in fragile coalition government with Nick Clegg's Liberal Democrats.  
2010 June - Belgium- The separatist New Flemish Alliance becomes largest party after federal parliamentary elections; French Socialist Party emerges as the winner in Wallonia. 

 2010 -Italy-July - Government survives confidence vote on austerity package meant to bolster the country's finances.

2010 August -Italy-  Mr Berlusconi's coalition loses majority in lower house of parliament after more than
30 deputies break away from his Party of Freedom and join Mr Fini's FLI.
2010 September - Spain- Basque separatist group Eta declares new ceasefire. Spanish government dismisses the move, saying there can be no political settlement until Eta renounces violence for good and disarms.
2010 October - Austria- Far-right Freedom Party wins 26% of vote in municipal elections in Vienna, putting it in second place to Social Democrats. 
2010 December -Italy-  Mr Berlusconi wins two confidence votes - brought after scandals in his private life and corruption allegations - by slender margin.  
2010 December -Denmark-  Three men are charged with planning to attack the offices of a newspaper which printed cartoons of the Muslim prophet Muhammad. A fourth is released and a fifth is held in Sweden.


 2010- Holland- coalition government collapses in dispute over troops in Afghanistan. June- centre right liberals win majority in parliamentary elections.

Holland- August- government withdraws its 1,900 troops from increasinly unpopular mission in Afghanistan.
Oct- Liberals agree to form a minority government with the Democratic Appeal with help from Geert Wilders' far right Freedom Party.

2010- August- Italy- Belusconi loses most of his centre-right support in lower house after mmbers defect.
2010: Spain: workers demonsrate against spending cuts and plans to raise retirement age
-unemplyoment reaches 20% in May. Palrilament passes auterity package. Sept- government rejects new ETA ceasefire; demands renunsiation of violence.

2010- Belgium- Liberal Open VLD pary quits governing coaltion over Froncophine voting rights causing government to collapse and bbringing iin June elections.

                                 SUCCESS FOR BELGIAN FLEMISH SEPARATIST PARTY.
2010- Belgium-June- Flemish separatist party becomes largest party after elections.French Socialist party winds in Wallonia.
2010- France: March - Ruling UMP suffers heavy losses in regional elections, losing all but one of the 22 regions in France and Corsica.

June - Government announces public sector cuts of 45bn euros to reduce public debt.

July - Prosecutors begin inquiry into allegations that L'Oreal heiress Liliane Bettencourt made illegal donations to Sarkozy's 2007 election bid.

August - France begins removal of illegal Roma (gypsy) camps and deportation of residents to Romania and Bulgaria

November - France concludes military and nuclear agreement with Britain to cooperate in testing nuclear warheads.
2010 October - Holland- After months of coalition talks, Liberal Party and Christian Democratic Appeal agree to form minority government with parliamentary support from Geert Wilders' far-right Freedom Party. 
2010- Nov. Ireland- Unable to pay its debt, Ireland applies for a loan from the European Union

                                            ITALY'S BERLUSCONI TO STAND TRIAL.
2011 February - Italy- A Milan judge orders Mr Berlusconi to stand trial on 6 April for abuse of power and paying for sex with an under-age prostitute.
2011 March - Denmark- Immigration Minister Birthe Roenn Hornbech is sacked after 36 stateless Palestinians were wrongly refused citizenship. 
2011 April - Belgium reaches one year without a government, as deadlock in talks on forming a new coalition continues.
2011 France- April - Face veil ban comes into force

                        FRANCE'S STRAUSS KAHN DETAINED IN U.S. ON SEX CHARGES.