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Monday, May 13, 2013



The Papacy

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TAG: It was a war between Mediterranean economic superpowers; about trade as much as religion.

IN THE NEWS:   Pope Francis I, 266th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, approves the canonization of the 800 martyrs of Otranto in southern Italy. The  martyrs had chosen death rather than conversion at the hands of of the army of Mehmet II of Turkey, which had invaded and taken Otranto. Well aware of Muslim sensitivity, the Pope gave an assurance that he had performed the rite in full awareness of "the historical context of the wars that determined relations between Europe and the Ottoman empire for a long period of time".


The Ottoman Turks emerged from Central Asia and arrived in Turkey or Anatolia in the 14th century. The Ottomans converted to Islam. Around 1450 they began to dominate Anatolia and expand into an empire under Mehmet II. Ottoman Turkey was then faced on the west by Orthodox Christian Byzantium in Greece, the Balkans and Constantinople; and further west by Christian Europe and Italy.

       There was, of course rivalry for territory on land and equally great rivalry over trade in the central Mediterranean, particularly with the chief maritime power, Venice. There was religious rivalry between the Ottoman Muslims and the Christians of Byzantium and Rome; but, above all, it seems to have been an economic and political power struggle.    


     Mehemt II conquered Constantinople in 1453. He proceeded in a conquest of the Balkans, only to be confronted by Venice which then dominated Mediterranean trade, threatening Turkey's expansion into Greece, southern Europe and the Adriatic as well as into the Levant. Pope Pius II called a crusade to liberate Greece from the Turks but it was a half-hearted failure.  By 1479, the Ottomans had taken the Balkans as far as the outskirts of Venice and Venice was forced to sue for peace. After the defeat of Venice, Italy seemed easy prey, divided as it was among warring principalities with the south ruled by Naples, a pawn of the Spanish Hapsburgs. In 1480 Mehmet's fleet and army successfully launched an invasion of the city of Otranto, on the very heel of southeastern Italy at the entrance to the Adriatic. 

        According to a file from the BBC: "Little is known of the individuals who were executed when they refused to convert, but they are believed to have all been men aged over 15. They are grouped together as the "companions" of Antonio Primaldo, thought to have been the first to die when, once the town had fallen to the Ottoman forces commanded by Gedik Ahmed Pasha after a 15-day siege, the men were given the choice of conversion or execution."


1451- Mehmet II. Founder of the Ottoman Empire. Reasserts Ottoman control over rebellious Turkish Emirs in Anatolia. Drives out the Hungarians the Venetians. He was a relentless conqueror but an open-minded ruler who assembled, Greek, Italian and Muslim scholars at his court.

1453- Constantinople falls to the Turks under Mehmet II. Mehmet rebuilds Constantinople as a tolerant center of learning.

1455-1459 Mehmet begins the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans.

1458-1460- Mehment conquers Morea in central Greece.

-Venice considers Mehmet's occupation of Morea to be a threat.

1463-1479- The War between the Venetians and the Turks arises directly from Trukish interference in Venice's trade in the Levant. To defeat Venice, Mehment will have to win control of the Adriatic.

-the Turks move northward on Venice through the Balkans and through the Adriatic. They meet resistance from Venice's naval allies.

-Pope Pius II launches a small, unsuccessful crusade from Ancona to liberate Morea in Greece.

-1470-1472- Mehmet wins successive defeats against Venice and her allies on land and sea.

-1477-1479 the Turks reach the outskirts of Venice. The Venetians are forced to accept a peace settlement imposed by Mehmet II.

-1480- August -With the sujection of Venice, Mehmet's next plan is the conquest of Italy. His first step is to eliminate the Kinights of St. John by invading Rhodes but the invasion fails. He then invades Otranto in southern Italy, then under the rule of the Spanish Habsburgs. The Turks successfully occupy Otanto. There, Turkish troops execute the 800 martyrs.


NE Refers to non-European Popes

First Century

1. St. Peter (32-67)
The first disciple called by Jesus; he is also credited with writing two Letters that appear in the New Testament. The first pope to be martyred and the first pope to be named a saint.Born in Bethsaida, just east of the Jordan River and in the Golan Heights (modern-day Israel or Syria depending on who one asks).
Disciple and apostle of Christ. First Pope. 

49- Council of Jerusalem- decisions made on conversions and circumcision. It was decided that it was not necessary for converts to submit to the Old Covenant laws like circumcision.

64 First great persecution of the Christians under the emperor Nero begins; Peter and Paul are martyred; approximate date 1st gospel (Mark or Matthew) written.

-Clemens Romanus and Ignatius of Antioch- argue in their writings that the natural seat of the Church is 0in Rome and that the Jerusalem hruch is no longer representative.

2. St. Linus (67-76)
3. St. Anacletus (Cletus) (76-88)

4. St. Clement I (88-97)
95 Gospel of John completed; Clement's letter to the Corinthians 

5. St. Evaristus (97-105)
100  Last books of NT (probably 2 Peter, 1 John) written.  Patristic period begins

Second Century

6. St. Alexander I (105-115) 
110 - Letters & Martyrdom of Ignatius of Antioch

7. St. Sixtus I (115-125)
8. St. Telesphorus (125-136)
9. St. Hyginus (136-140)
10. St. Pius I (140-155) The first pope to function as Bishop of Rome.
NE 11. St. Anicetus (155-166) Born in Roman Emesa, modern day Homs, and ethnically Greek. Worked with Polycarp of Smyrna, a student of Saint John the Apostle, to try to determine a date for Easter.
12. St. Soter (166-175) Introduced Easter as an annual liturgical feast in Rome.
13. St. Eleutherius (175-189) . 
185  Irenaeus writes Against Heresies, banning the heretical writings, many of them Gnostic, from the Bibble; Clement takes over the catechetical school at Alexandria to be followed 20 years later by Origen

NE 14. St. Victor I (189-199)- The first African pope. Some claim he was Black based on his identification of being an "African" but this connection is modern. African could mean Berber or, more likely, a Roman citizen born in Africa. Called a council to establish the date of Easter. Victor asserts the primacy of  Rome on this question by resolving a disagreement with the Asian churches on the matter, in Rome's favour. After this, Rome's authority over the Asian churches continued to inrease. Changed the liturgy of the Roman Church from Greek to Latin. 

15. St. Zephyrinus (199-217)  Pope Zephyrinus assigned his deacon, Calixtus (a former slave), to administer the large underground complex beneath the Appian Way. The subterranean graveyard had existed from about 150CE. This first official Christian cemetery probably originated as the private open-air burial ground of the noble Cecili family of Rome. From this time on it became known as the Catacombs of St. Calixtus. It extended over an area of 20 km., one 3-5 levels, and includes some 500,000 tombs. 
200 c.  Sabellius teaches that Father and Son are the same person (modalism)

Third Century

16. St. Callistus I (217-22)
17. St. Urban I (222-30)
18. St. Pontain (230-35)
The first pope to abdicate his office.
19. St. Anterus (235-36)
20. St. Fabian (236-50)
21. St. Cornelius (251-53)
22. St. Lucius I (253-54)
23. St. Stephen I (254-257)

24. St. Sixtus II (257-258)

This highly venerated martyr was beheaded by order of the Emperor Valerian.
25. St. Dionysius (260-268)
His election to the papacy was delayed because of Christian persecution in Rome.
26. St. Felix I (269-274)
27. St. Eutychian (275-283)

28. St. Caius (283-296)
The Roman Empire is partitioned into West and East.  

29. St. Marcellinus (296-304)

Fourth Century

30. St. Marcellus I (308-309)
31. St. Eusebius (309 or 310)
NE 32. St. Miltiades (311-14)Unknown location of birth besides Roman Africa. As Egypt was well defined he probably was born in either modern day Tunisia, Algeria, or Libya. Possibly Berber or African of European-descent At the consecration of bishop Caecilian of Carthage in 311, one of the three bishops, Felix, bishop of Aptunga, who consecrated Caecilian, had given copies of the Bible to the Roman persecutors.  A group of about 70 bishops formed a synod and declared the consecration of the bishop to be invalid.  Great debate arose concerning the validity of the sacraments (baptism, the Lord's Supper, etc.) by one who had sinned so greatly against other Christians.

313-Constantine legalizes Christianity & all religions in the Edict of Milan

33. St. Sylvester I (314-35)
During his pontificate, the first ecumenical council (in Nicaea) was held.

325- Council of Nicea- Nicene Creed; divinity of Christ, condemned Arianism; Easter observance set.
Construction of St. Peter's Basilica begins in 330. 

330- building of the original St. Peter's Basilica.
331- Seat of the Roman Empire was moved to Constantinople.
34. St. Marcus (336)
35. St. Julius I (337-52) He strongly defended the Council of Nicaea's teaching on the divinity of Christ.

 -the authority of the Church of Rome suffers due to the removal of the center of the empire to Milan.
36. Liberius (352-66)

37. St. Damasus I (366-83)
He authorized a new Latin translation of the New Testament.
Barbarian invasions begin in 375 and continue to 568.

381- Council of Constantinople- Expanded the Creed; defeated Arianism; condemned Macedonians who the denied divinity of the Holy Spirit.

38. St. Siricius (384-99)
39. St. Anastasius I (399-401)

Fifth Century

40. St. Innocent I (401-17)

-the Roman Church suffers a loss of authority to the African Church over the controversy  concerning the Donatist heresy.

41. St. Zosimus (417-18)
42. St. Boniface I (418-22)
43. St. Celestine I (422-32)  Third Council of Ephesus was held during his pontificate. Defended Mary as the mother of God; condemned Nestorianism which held there were two distinct persons in the Incarnate Christ.

431- Council of Ephesus III-  Fifty years after the First Council of Constantinople, Theodosius' son Theodosius II ruled as emperor. He was much more inclined to hear the Church, influenced by his saintly sister Saint Pulcheria and, in harmony with Pope Saint Celestine I, a third General Council was called in Ephesus in the southern tip of Asia Minor. Over 200 bishops attended, declaring the Divine Maternity Dogma of the Blessed Virgin Mary as the Mother of God. Also, led by Saint Cyril of Alexandria, the Council defined that Christ has two natures - Divine and human, but only one Person which is Divine. This affirmation condemned Nestorianism and deposed Nestorius, who was the bishop of Constantinople. The Council also affirmed the Council of Carthage held for the local Church in 416, thus condemning Pelagius and his teachings

44. St. Sixtus III (432-40)
 He showed remarkable leadership for building Church unity.

45. St. Leo I (the Great) (440-61)
 He and Pope Gregory (590-604) are the only two popes to be called "the Great." Leo courageously confronted Attila the Hun and neutralized other barbaric invaders. He stared down Attila the Hun in 452 to prevent the sacking of Rome and later persuaded a Vandal king to spare the people. The first to rule that popes are successors to St. Peter with authority over all the faithful.

451- The Council of Chalcedon- Condemned Monophysitism by defining two distinct natures of Christ: Jesus fully human and divine.

-the episcopate of Rome begins to extend its authority to all of Christendom, thus transforming itself into the Papacy.

46. St. Hilarius (461-68)
47. St. Simplicius (468-83)
48. St. Felix III (II) (483-92)
NE 49. St. Gelasius I (492-96)- Unknown location of birth besides Roman Africa. As Egypt was well defined he probably was born in either modern day Tunisia, Algeria, or Libya. Possibly Berber or African-of European descent.
50. Anastasius II (496-98)
51. St. Symmachus (498-514)

Sixth Century

52. St. Hormisdas (514-23)
53. St. John I (523-26)
 He was first pope to travel to the East (Constantinople).

54. St. Felix IV (III) (526-30)

530- The Emperor Justinian declares all marriages of the clergy to be null and void.

55. Boniface II (530-32)
He was the first pope of German extraction.

56. John II (533-35)
57. St. Agapetus I (535-36)  He strongly opposed the Arian heresy, which held that that Jesus Christ was not the Son of God.

58. St. Silverius (536-37)
He was the first pope to resign his office.
59. Vigilius (537-55)
553- Council of Chledon II- confirmed Chalcedon (451); condemned heresies like Monotheletism that held Christ had only one will.

60. Pelagius I (556-61)
61. John III (561-74)
62. Benedict I (575-79)

63. Pelagius II (579-90)
64. Gregory I (the Great) (590-604)  

Seventh Century

64. Gregory I- the Great (590-604) - greatly increased the secular power of the papacy, Gregory was also influential in matters of doctrine, liturgy, and missionary work.He was the second pope of German extraction.

65. Sabinian (604-606)

66. Boniface III (607)
67. St. Boniface IV (608-15)

68. St. Deusdedit (Adeodatus I) (615-18) During his pontificate, Rome suffered the ravages of an earthquake and the plague.

69. Boniface V (619-25)
70. Honorius I (625-38) moved the seat of the papacy to Ravenna.
71. Severinus (640)
72. John IV (640-42)
NE 73. Theodore I (642-49) Born in Jerusalem but ethnically Greek. Probably born within what is now the old city, internally recognized as part of the West Bank. Israel claims this territory as its own.During his lifetime, pre-papal, Byzantine Jerusalem was captured by Arab Muslim forces in 637. Also, Pope Theodore I had impact on the Church in Constantinople and his oversight of that Church is recognized even today by the Orthodox Churches.
74. St. Martin I (649-55)
75. St. Eugene I (655-57)
76. St. Vitalian (657-72)
77. Adeodatus (II) (672-76)
78. Donus (676-78)
79. St. Agatho (678-81)

680 Council of Constantinople III- Defeat of Monotheletism by defining two wills of Christ as two distinct principles of operation in unity of purpose.

80. St. Leo II (682-83)
81. St. Benedict II (684-85)
NE 82. John V (685-86) Born in Byzantine Antioch. Ethnically Greek.
83. Conon (686-87)
84. St. Sergius I (687-701)

Eighth Century

NE 85. John VI (701-05)- Born in Ephesus, a Byzantine city in modern-day Turkey. Ethnically Greek.
86. John VII (705-07)
87. Sisinnius (708)- Born in the Rashidun Caliphate, modern day Syria. Unknown exact location. Suffered from gout but respected for his strong character.
NE 88. Constantine (708-15)- Born in Umayyad Caliphate, modern day Syria, possibly in Damascus. Ethnically Assyrian but culturally Greek. Last Pope to visit Constantinople until Pope Paul VI in 1967.
89. St. Gregory II (715-31)
NE 90. St. Gregory III (731-41) Born in Umayyad Caliphate, modern day Syria, possibly in Damascus. Unknown ethnicity. Worked to try to end the Byzantine and Church of Constantinople embrace of the Iconoclast heresy. Last non-European Pope.
91. St. Zachary (741-52)
Stephen II (752)—Stephen II was elected but died before he was consecrated pope, so he is not found on the Vatican's official list or included in the count.
92. Stephen III (752-57)-
93. St. Paul I (757-67)
94. Stephen IV (767-72)

769-  The right of the laity to veto the election of a pope is abolished at a Synod in the Lateran.

95. Adrian I (772-95)

787- Council of Nicea II- Regulated veneration of holy images; condemned Iconoclasts and defined that sacred images may be honored without idolatry.

96. St. Leo III (795-816)

Ninth Century

97. Stephen V (816-17)
98. St. Paschal I (817-24)
99. Eugene II (824-27)
100. Valentine (827)
101. Gregory IV (827-44)
102. Sergius II (844-47)
103. St. Leo IV (847-55)
104. Benedict III (855-58)
105. St. Nicholas I (the Great) (858-67)
862- Pope Nicholas restores the right of laity to veto the election of the pope but restricts it to the Roman nobility.
106. Adrian II (867-72)

869- Council of Constantinople IV- Condemned teachings of Photius Bishop of Constantinople. Last council attended by Eastern Church; beginning of the Great Eastern Schism.

107. John VIII (872-82)
108. Marinus I (882-84)
109. St. Adrian III (884-85)
110. Stephen VI (885-91)

111. Formosus (891-96)
Ambitious and vain, Formosus made enemies after becoming pope. Nine months after his death, his corpse was dug up and he was placed on a throne, in full papal vestments.He was then tried for a variety of alleged offences, including the sin of coveting the papacy.After finding him guilty, his accusers cut off the three fingers of his right hand that he used for papal blessings, and he was buried in a common grave.
His body was dug up for a second time, and thrown into the River Tiber, before being buried for a third time.

112. Boniface VI (896)
113. Stephen VII (896-97)
114. Romanus (897)
115. Theodore II (897)
116. John IX (898-900)

Tenth Century

117. Benedict IV (900-03)
118. Leo V (903)
119. Sergius III (904-11)
120. Anastasius III (911-13)
121. Lando (913-14)
122. John X (914-28)
123. Leo VI (928)
124. Stephen VIII (929-31)
125. John XI (931-35)
126. Leo VII (936-39)
127. Stephen IX (939-42)
128. Marinus II (942-46)
129. Agapetus II (946-55)
130. John XII (955-63)
131. Leo VIII (963-64)
132. Benedict V (964)
133. John XIII (965-72)
134. Benedict VI (973-74)
135. Benedict VII (974-83)
136. John XIV (983-84)
137. John XV (985-96)
138. Gregory V (996-99)
139. Sylvester II (999-1003)

Eleventh Century

140. John XVII (1003)
141. John XVIII (1003-09)
142. Sergius IV (1009-12)
143. Benedict VIII (1012-24)
144. John XIX (1024-32)
145. Benedict IX (1032-45)
146. Sylvester III (1045)
147. Benedict IX (1045)
148. Gregory VI (1045-46)
149. Clement II (1046-47)
150. Benedict IX (1047-48)
151. Damasus II (1048)
152. St. Leo IX (1049-54)
153. Victor II (1055-57)
154. Stephen X (1057-58)

155. Nicholas II (1058-61)
-determined that in a papal election, the cardinals should select a candidate who would take office after approval by the clergy and the laity.  The French-born Bishop of Florence became the pope who turned cardinals into kingmakers and cracked down on simony -- the buying and selling of church offices. Before the Lateran Council he convened, the pope was chosen by clergy, the faithful and sometimes secular authorities, O'Malley says. McBrien calls Nicholas a bad influence for his imperial pretensions.

156. Alexander II (1061-73)

157. St. Gregory VII (1073-85)
 Consolidatedthe papacy as a centralized monarchy of secular and religious power. In his heyday, Gregory famously brought German King Henry IV to his knees, making him stand in the snow for days begging forgiveness. Eventually, the pope lost control of the city to Norman invaders and was driven from Rome. But in his efforts to combat corruption and secular interference, he transformed the papacy into a legalistic office, an influence for the worse.

158. Blessed Victor III (1086-87)
159. Blessed Urban II (1088-99)

160. Paschal II (1099-1118)

Twelfth Century

161. Gelasius II (1118-19)
162. Callistus II (1119-24)
1123- Lateran Council I-  First council after the Great Eastern Schism. Condemned practice of lay princes in investiture of bishops. Called for recovery of the Holy Land.

163. Honorius II (1124-30)
164. Innocent II (1130-43)
1139- Lateran Council  II- Enacted reforms suggested by St. Bernard of Clairvaux; condemned certain heresies; declared null and void decrees by the deceased antipope Anticletus II.
-annulled the requirement of the laity and lower clergy to approve papal candidates put forward for election by the cardinals.

165. Celestine II (1143-44)
166. Lucius II (1144-45)
167. Blessed Eugene III (1145-53)
168. Anastasius IV (1153-54)
169. Adrian IV (1154-59)
170. Alexander III (1159-81)

1179- Lateran Coubcil  III-  Established the Sacred Conclave as voting body to elect Pope by 2/3rds majority, with equal rights for all cardinals in the College of Cardinals; condemned the Albigensian and Waldensian heresies

171. Lucius III (1181-85)
172. Urban III (1185-87)
173. Gregory VIII (1187)
174. Clement III (1187-91)
175. Celestine III (1191-98)
176. Innocent III (1198-1216)
Called for a new Crusade. Excommunicated and deposed Emperor Frederick II.He broadened and deepened the lives of the medieval faithful by approving the Franciscan religious order, dedicated to preaching and healing, and the Dominicans, known for their learning. He promoted the disastrous Fourth Crusade and saw himself as omnipotent.
1215-Lateran Council IV- Defined ex cathedra: from the chair of Peter and "There is but one Universal church, outside of which there is no salvation." Set in stone the term Transubstantiation for the mystery of the Eucharist. Ordered annual confession and Easter Communion.

Thirteenth Century

177. Honorius III (1216-27)
178. Gregory IX (1227-41)
179. Celestine IV (1241)
180. Innocent IV (1243-54)
1245- Council of Lyon I-  Called for a new Crusade. Excommunicated and deposed Emperor Frederick II.

181. Alexander IV (1254-61)
182. Urban IV (1261-64)
183. Clement IV (1265-68)
184. Blessed Gregory X (1271-76)

1274- Counccil of Lyon II- Filioque clause officially added to the Creed. Attempted reconciliation with Eastern Catholics. Decreed that papal elections should begin 10 days after death of the Pope.
-1274- during the Second Council of Lyon the present system of papal election by conclave begins with Pope Gregory X in an attempt to block outside interference. Gregory X also limited each cardinal elector to two servants, and rationed their food progressively on the fourth and ninth days should they fail to elect a new pope. Cardinals were to be secluded in a closed area and not accorded individual rooms. No cardinal was allowed, unless ill, to be attended by more than two servants. Food was supplied through a window to avoid outside contact. After three days of the conclave, the cardinals were to receive only one dish a day; after another five days, they were to receive just bread and water. During the conclave, no cardinal was to receive any ecclesiastical revenue.

185. Blessed Innocent V (1276)
186. Adrian V (1276)- Adrian V suspends the strict rules of conclave in the election of the pope due to unpopularity among the cardinals.
187. John XXI (1276-77)- summarily abolished the rules of the conclave but died before he could put the rule into action, though lengthy, indecisive elections continued.
188. Nicholas III (1277-80)
189. Martin IV (1281-85)
190. Honorius IV (1285-87)
191. Nicholas IV (1288-92)
192. St. Celestine V (1294)
The papal throne had been vacant for 27 months when the cardinals finally elected Pietro del Morrone.
He was a hermit with a reputation for helping the poor and healing the sick, and he lived in a tiny grotto on a hillside. The cardinals who chose him were impressed by his image as a holy man. Pietro protested that he did not want the job, but was persuaded to accept the papacy. It was a big mistake. His lack of education led to chaos, and after just five months he decided to abdicate. He was kept a virtual prisoner until his death.
Although others have been forced from office, Celestine was the last pope to resign voluntarily, assuring him a place in Vatican history. During the process he attempted to restore the strict rules for the conclave instituted by Gregory X in 1274.

Thirteenth Century

193. Boniface VIII (1294-1303)

Fourteenth Century

194. Blessed Benedict XI (1303-04)
  • Avignon Papacy Begins
195. Clement V (1305-14)
Councul of Vienne- Reformation of the clergy and Catholic universities; called for a new Crusade; dealt with the charges against the Knights Templar; defined the relation of the soul to the human body; condemned false mysticism.

1309-1376- the Avignon Papacy, in which Popes preferred by France resided at Avignon instead of Rome.

1314-1316- papal conclaves were interrupted by the chaos in Avignon and then stopped altogether during the Great Western Schism between Avignon and Rome until 1417.

196. John XXII (1316-34)
197. Benedict XII (1334-42)
198. Clement VI (1342-52)
199. Innocent VI (1352-62)
200. Blessed Urban V (1362-70)
201. Gregory XI (1370-78)
1376- the end of the Avignon Papacy
202. Urban VI (1378-89)
203. Boniface IX (1389-1404)

Fifteenth Century

204. Innocent VII (1404-06)
205. Gregory XII (1406-15)
1414- Council of Constance- Put an end to the Western Schism (Avignon Popes vs. Rome); issued reform decrees in "head and members", condemned Wycliffe and Hus.

Fifteenth Century

206. Martin V (1417-31)
207. Eugene IV (1431-47)
1431-1445 Council of Basil and Florence -Affirmed papal primacy against Conciliarists who said a general council was superior to the Pope; attempted reunion with Eastern church.

208. Nicholas V (1447-55)
209. Callistus III (1455-58)
210. Pius II (1458-64)
211. Paul II (1464-71)
212. Sixtus IV (1471-84)
213. Innocent VIII (1484-92)
214. Alexander VI (1492-1503)
Rodrigo de Borgia was a wealthy Spaniard who used his riches to buy the papacy.
Having bribed the cardinals into electing him pope, he used his power to give jobs to his relatives. The papacy virtually became a family business.The religious life did not stop him enjoying the pleasures of the flesh. He was the father of nine children by various mistresses - the murderous Lucrezia Borgia was his daughter. Appropriately, given the family's talent for administering deadly potions, it is thought he may himself have died from poison.

Sixteenth Century

215. Pius III (1503)
216. Julius II (1503-13)

More like a warrior prince than a pope; known for arranging to sell indulgences to pay for building a new St. Peter's Basilica. (Indulgences are a way forgiven sinners can shorten or escape the punishment of purgatory.) That helped provoke Martin Luther's Protestant Reformation. But Julius also persuaded Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel, commissioned paintings from Raphael and assigned architect Bramante to design the new St. Peter's.
1512-1517- Lateran Council V- Disciplinary decrees-defined the relation of Pope to a general council, condemned philosophers who taught human soul was mortal and only one for all mankind; discussed religious upheaval in Germany caused by Luther.

217. Leo X (1513-21)
218. Adrian VI (1522-23)
219. Clement VII (1523-34)

220. Paul III (1534-49)

He convoked the Council of Trent, which organized the church in response to the Protestant Reformation. He cracked down on clerical abuses and established formal seminaries to train priests. Paul excommunicated Henry VIII rather than grant him a divorce, thereby isolating England from the Catholic world. He also founded the "Roman Inquisition" to enforce doctrinal purity.

1245-1563- Council of Trent- Condemned Lutheranism and other errors in teaching that resulted from Protestant movement; proclaimed Bible and Tradition as rule of faith; defined doctrine on the Mass, the sacraments, justification, purgatory, indulgences, invocation of saints, veneration of sacred images, issued decrees on marriage and clerical reform.

221. Julius III (1550-55)
222. Marcellus II (1555)
223. Paul IV (1555-59)
224. Pius IV (1559-65)

Sixteenth Century

225. St. Pius V (1566-72)
226. Gregory XIII (1572-85)
227. Sixtus V (1585-90)
1587- SixtusV limits the number of cardinals in papal conclave to 70.

228. Urban VII (1590)
229. Gregory XIV (1590-91)
230. Innocent IX (1591)
231. Clement VIII (1592-1605)

Seventeenth Century

232. Leo XI (1605)
233. Paul V (1605-21)
234. Gregory XV (1621-23)
235. Urban VIII (1623-44)
236. Innocent X (1644-55)
237. Alexander VII (1655-67)
238. Clement IX (1667-69)
239. Clement X (1670-76)
240. Blessed Innocent XI (1676-89)
241. Alexander VIII (1689-91)
242. Innocent XII (1691-1700)

Eighteenth Century

243. Clement XI (1700-21)
244. Innocent XIII (1721-24)
245. Benedict XIII (1724-30)
246. Clement XII (1730-40)
247. Benedict XIV (1740-58)
248. Clement XIII (1758-69)
249. Clement XIV (1769-74)
250. Pius VI (1775-99)

Nineteenth Century

251. Pius VII (1800-23)
252. Leo XII (1823-29)
253. Pius VIII (1829-30)
254. Gregory XVI (1831-46)

255. Blessed Pius IX (1846-78)
His was the second-longest pontificate in history, including eight years he refused to leave the Vatican as a political protest to losing the papal state to the new unified Italy. He sparked a spiritual revival in 1854 with the declaration of the immaculate conception -- that Jesus' mother, Mary, was born without sin. And, in 1870, he pushed through the doctrine of papal infallibility in faith and morals, making the papacy the watchdog, teacher and final arbiter of doctrine. He also condemned free expression and approving the secret baptism of a kidnapped Jewish boy.

1856-1870- Vatican Council I- Defined the nature of revelation and faith, the relation of faith and reason; and infallibility of the Pope when speaking ex cathedra in matters of faith and morals. Condemned pantheism, materialism, deism, naturalism, and fideism.

 256. Leo XIII (1878-1903) Dubbed the "workers' pope," Leo laid the groundwork for Catholic social thought and the church's response to modern economics and industrialization, McBrien says. Generations of popes dedicated their writings to Leo on anniversaries of his encyclical on the subject.

Twentieth Century

257. St. Pius X (1903-14)
258. Benedict XV (1914-22)
259. Pius XI (1922-39)
260. Pius XII (1939-58)

261. Blessed John XXIII (1958-63)
John may habe been the best loved of all the popes. In the 1960s he called the Second Vatican Council, turning the church to the 20th century with a broad series of reforms such as using the local language for the liturgy instead of Latin and issuing a document on the fundamental rights and dignity of all human beings. His encyclical on peace was addressed to all people of good will -- within and beyond the Catholic Church. This pope renewed the faith and reached out to the world.
-increased the number of cardinals in papal conclave to make papal elections more representative.
1962-1965- Vatican II- Convoked by Pope John XXIII "mainly to more effectively preserve and present the sacred deposit of Christian doctrine." Sixteen documents reaffirmed the principles of Catholic faith and morality, authorized numerous changes in the Eucharistic liturgy, the ritual of the sacraments, and in the church's administrative structure. These documents and liturgical reforms defined the Church in the modern age.

262. Paul VI (1963-78)- Paul VIcontinued Pope John's effort to attain unity of the Christian world. On 4 October 1965, he addressed the UN General Assembly, appealing for world peace and international cooperation. He presided over the concluding sessions of the Second Vatican Council and traveled to many places, including the Holy Land.
-made cardinals over the age of 80 ineligible for the election of a pope in conclave. He also limited the conclave to 120 electors.
263. John Paul I (1978)

264. John Paul II (1978-2005)- was elevated to the papacy on 16 October 1978. This former archbishop of Cracow was not only the first Polish pope but also the first non-Italian pope since the Renaissance. the first non-Italian pope in four-and-a-half centuries. He quickly became the most-widely travelled pope in history, visiting almost every corner of the Catholic world. John Paul II took the papacy out to the people like never before, and he became instantly recognisable around the globe. His papacy was shaped by his background. As a young priest in Poland, he saw the Nazi persecution at first hand. Then as the Archbishop of Krakow, he faced the challenge of running a Catholic Church in a communist state. His election as pope is seen by historians as a factor in the subsequent collapse of communism in Eastern Europe. John Paul II upheld the traditional teachings of the Church, opposing birth control and abortion, and maintaining the celibacy of the priesthood. He also reached out to other faiths, looking for reconciliation after centuries of hostility and suspicion. Despite suffering severe wounds in a 1981 assassination attempt, John Paul II continued to travel widely. To the dismay of Jewish and other leaders, John Paul II granted Austrian President Kurt Waldheim (b.1918) an audience in June 1987, despite accusations that Waldheim had taken part in war crimes during World War II when he was an officer in the German army.

 265. Benedict XVI (2005—)


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