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Wednesday, July 17, 2013

Timeline for Mass Shootings and Gun Control in the United States.


HISTORY IN THE NEWS:

    

History never dies. It is reborn every minute of every day.

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HISTORY IN THE NEWS: DEDICATED TO THE ORIGINS OF CONTEMPORARY EVENTS AROUND THE WORLD.



CHRONOLOGY FOR MASS SHOOTINGS AND GUN  CONTROL LEGISLATION IN THE UNITED STATES.

With help from: http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/aa092699.htm
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2012/07/mass-shootings-map
http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2012-12-22/national/36017348_1_gun-dealers-gun-laws-unlicensed-private-sellers
http://prezi.com/4g7ovu6-pbor/gun-control-legislation-timeline/

1791- The Bill of Rights, including the Second Amendment -- "A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed." gains final ratification.

1837- Georgia passes a law banning handguns. The law is ruled unconstitutional and thrown out.
1865- In a reaction to emancipation, several southern states adopt "black codes" which, among other things, forbid black persons from possessing firearms.
1871 The National Rifle Association (NRA) is organized around its primary goal of improving American civilians' marksmanship in preparation for war. (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/aa092699.htm)
1927- Congress passes a law banning the mailing of concealable weapons.
1934- The National Firearms Act of 1934 regulating only fully automatic firearms like sub-machine guns is approved by Congress.(http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/aa092699.htm)
1938- Roosevelt wins approval of the National Firearms Act of 1938, which requires the licensing of interstate gun dealers, who must record their sales. It prohibits sales to individuals under indictment or convicted of crimes of violence.
1939- The Federal Firearms Act of 1938 places the first limitations on selling ordinary firearms. Persons selling guns are required to obtain a Federal Firearms License, at an annual cost of $1, and to maintain records of the name and address of persons to whom firearms are sold. Gun sales to persons convicted of violent felonies were prohibited. 
1949- Sept 5- Camden NJ- US army veteran Howard Unruh kills 13 neighbours. 
1963 - Nov. 22- shortly after, evidence in the the assassination of President John F. Kennedy increased public awareness to the relative lack
of control over the sale and possession of firearms in America. Indeed, until 1968,
handguns, rifles, shotguns, and ammunition were commonly sold over-the-counter and through
mail-order catalogs and magazines to just about any adult anywhere in the nation. 
1966- August 1, 1966: Charles Joseph Whitman, a student at  the University of Texas at Austin, killed 14 people and wounded 32 
others during a shooting rampage on and around the college campus. The massacre unraveled after Whitman murdered his wife and mother at their 
homes. He was ultimately shot and killed about 90 minutes after the mass shooting by an Austin city Police Officer.
1968- The Gun Control Act of 1968 - "...was enacted for the purpose of keeping firearms out of the hands of
those not legally entitled to possess them because of age, criminal background, or
incompetence." -- Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms The Act regulates
imported guns, expands the gun-dealer licensing and record keeping requirements, and
places specific limitations on the sale of handguns. The list of persons banned from
buying guns is expanded to include persons convicted of any non-business related felony,
persons found to be mentally incompetent, and users of illegal drugs. (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/aa092699.htm) 
1972- The Bureau ofAlcohol Tobacco and Firearms is created listing as part of its mission the control of
illegal use and sale of firearms and the enforcement of Federal firearms laws. ATF issues
firearms licenses and conducts firearms licensee qualification and compliance inspections.
 1975 - Heiress Patty Hearst is kidnapped in San Francisco. She would be recovered by FBI agents on
September 8 and subsequently indicted for bank robbery.  Hurst would be
convicted of the crime two years later. 
1977- The District of Columbia enacts an anti-handgun law which also requires
registration of all rifles and shotguns within the District of Columbia.
1982- Sept 25- Wilkes Barr, Penn. -Prison guard George Banks kills 13 including 5 of his children. 
1984- July 18- San Ysidro Cal.- James Oliver Huberty, 41, opened fire in a McDonald's restaurant before 
he was shot dead by a police officer. Total injured and killed: 41 
1986- The Armed Career Criminal Act (Public Law 99-570) increases penalties for possession of firearms by persons not qualified to own them under the Gun Control Act of 1986.
The Firearms Owners Protection Act (Public Law 99-308) relaxes some restrictions on gun and ammunition sales and establishes mandatory penalties for use of firearms during the commission of a crime. The Law Enforcement Officers Protection Act (Public Law 99-408) bans possession of "cop killer" bullets capable of penetrating bulletproof clothing.http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/aa092699.htm
1986-Aug. 20: Edmond Oklahoma- Pat Sherrill, 44, a postal worker who was about to be fired, shoots 14 people at a post office in Edmond, Okla. He then kills himself.
1988- Feb 16- Former ESL Incorporated employee Richard Farley, 39, gunned down seven people at his former workplace. He was later arrested and now sits on death row at San Quentin. Total injured and killed: 11
1989- Jan 17- Stockton Cal.- Patrick Purdy, 26, an alcoholic with a police record, launched an assault at Cleveland Elementary School, where many young Southeast Asian immigrants were enrolled. Purdy killed himself with a shot to the head. Total injured and killed: 35

1989- California bans the possession of semiautomatic assault weapons following the massacre of five children on a Stockton, CA school playground.
1989- Sept. 14-Louisville Ky-  Joseph T. Wesbecker, 47, gunned down eight people at his former workplace before committing suicide. Total injured and killed: 21
1990- The Crime Control Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-647) bans manufacturing and importing semiautomatic assault weapons in the U.S. "Gun-free school zones" are established carrying specific penalties for violations.
1991- Oct 16- Kileen Tex,- George Hennard, 35, drove his pickup truck into a Luby's cafeteria and opened fire before committing suicide. Total injured and killed: 44
1993- February 28- The fifty-one day Waco standoff begins when the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms attempt to arrest the Branch Dividian leader David Koresh on federal arms violations.  Four agents and five members of the cult are killed in the raid.  The siege would end on April 19 when a fire, started by the Davidians, killed seventy-five members of the group, including the leader.
1994- The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (Public Law 103-159) imposes a five-day waiting period on the purchase of a handgun and requires that local law enforcement agencies conduct background checks on purchasers of handguns. (ATF's Brady Law web site.)
1994- Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act The Violence Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, was an act of Congress that became a law in 1994. The act, often referred to as the Assault Weapons ban, provided $30.2 billion for crime control and related programs, “it is the largest crime bill in the history of the country and will provide for 100,000 new police officers, $9.7 billion in funding for prisons and $6.1 billion in funding for prevention programs which were designed with significant input from experienced police officers.”
1994- June 20- Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington- Former airman Dean Allen Mellberg, 20, opened fire inside a hospital at the Fairchild Air Force Base before he was shot dead by a military police officer outside. Total injured and killed: 28
1995- Dec 7- Garden City, NY- Colin Ferguson, 35, opened fire on an eastbound Long Island Rail Road train as it approached a Garden City station. He was later arrested. Total injured and killed: 25
The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 (Public Law 103-322) bans all sale, manufacture, importation, or possession of a number of specific types of assault weapons.
1994- September 13- President Bill Clinton signs the Assault Weapons Ban, which bars the use of these weapons for ten years.

1998- May 21- Springfield, Oregon- After he was expelled for having a gun in his locker, Kipland P. Kinkel, 15, a freshman at Thurston High, went on a shooting spree, killing his parents at home and two students at school. Five classmates wrestled Kipland to the ground before he was arrested. Total injured and killed: 29.
1999- July 29- Atlanta Ga- Day trader Mark O. Barton, 44, who had recently lost a substantial sum of money, went on a shooting spree through two day trading firms. He started at the All-Tech Investment Group, where he worked, then went on to Momentum Securities. He fled and hours later, after being cornered by police outside a gas station, committed suicide. (Two days before the spree, he killed his wife and two children with a hammer.) Total injured and killed: 22
2002- United States v. Bean: Only the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms can restore the right to own a firearm; the courts have no say in it.
2003- In a victory for the NRA, Congress passes the Tiahrt Amendment to a federal spending bill. The amendment, proposed by Rep. Todd Tiahrt (R-Kan.), prohibits law enforcement from publicly releasing data showing where criminals bought their firearms.
2004- Federal Assault Weapons Ban Experired On September 13, 2004, the Federal Assault Weapons Ban expired. Numerous attempts to renew this ban have been fruitless so far.

2007- Apr. 16- Virginia Tech, Blacksburg Va. Virginia Tech student Seung-Hui Cho, 23, opened fire on his school's campus before committing suicide. Total injured and killed: 56
2007- District of Columbia v. Heller This ruling declared that the rights specified under the 2nd Amendment  to the constitution applies to not only militias but also individuals.
2008- Feb 14- DeKalb Ill.- Steven Kazmierczak, 27, opened fire in a lecture hall, then shot and killed himself before police arrived. Total injured and killed: 27

2009- Nov 5- Fort Hood, Tex- Army psychiatrist Nidal Malik Hasan, 39, opened fire on an Army base in an attack linked to Islamist extremism. Hasan was injured during the attack and later arrested. Total injured and killed: 43 
2010- 2010 McDonald v. Chicago This ruling further protects an individual's right to own a gun.
2010- since 2000, high support for gun control has been dropping and low support for gun rights has been creasing. By 2010, the two trends meet, diving the US more or less equally. Since then they have been neck and neck in a colose competition for support. (http://swaywhat.com/chart-64500789170-brief-timeline-gun-rights-vs-gun-control)
2011- Jan 8- Tucson Ariz- Jared Loughner, 22, opened fire outside a Safeway during a constituent meeting with Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords (D-Ariz.) before he was subdued by bystanders and arrested. Total injured and killed: 19 
2012- July 20-  Aurora Col- James Holmes, 24, opened fire in a movie theater during the opening night of "The Dark Knight Rises" and was later arrested outside. Total injured and killed: 70 
2012- 14 Dec:  Adam Lanza, 20, shot his mother dead at their home then drove to Sandy Hook Elementary school. He forced his way inside and opened fire, killing 20 children and six adults before committing suicide. Total injured and killed: at least 28 The shooting at Sandy Hook elementary school in Newtown, Connecticut, is one of many in the US over the past 50 years,
2012-2013- the Sandy Hook school shooting sparks nation wide gun control debates for and against proposals to ban military grade weapons.
2013- In response to recent massacres, including the killing of 20 first graders in Newtown, Conn., and 12 moviegoers in Aurora, Colo., President Barack Obama introduces proposals to tighten gun-control laws. His plan includes universal background checks for gun sales, the reinstatement and strengthening of the assault weapons ban, limiting ammunition magazines to a 10-round capacity, and other measures.


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