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Tuesday, August 6, 2013

Timeline and Chronology for the History of Yemen- 800 BC- 2013.


Dedicated to the background of contemporary events around the world. 


for modern dates, thanks to:

Ancient Yemen

800-200 BC- Mineans, a tribe of south Yemen, send camel caravans to memphis, Egypt and to the Atlantic cooast of Africa.

750 BC- advanced civilizations in southern Arabia. The Yemen region forms the cultural heartland of Arabia.

-Sabeans absorb the Mineans and set up a system of feudal aristocracy that resists the rise of any centralized authority.

-Sabeans absorbed by the Himyarites.

The Himyarites

-200 BC (circa) Himyarites lose control of the major Mediterranean trade route to India after it is diverted to Egypt.

-24 BC- Himyarites repulse a legion under Aelius Gallus at the behest of Julius Caesar.

200-600- waning of the urbanized Yemenite trading states.

525 AD- Judaism gains strength in the Himyarite kingdom resulting in the persecution of Christians.

-Himyarites control the trade route in frankinsense, myhhr and rare woods between Europe, Africa, the Mideast and India and China.

530- Byzantium encourages Christian Abyssinia to invade the Himyarites. Abyssynian governor Abraha conquers the Himyarites and invades the Arabian heartland but fails to capture Mecca.

575- Abyssinia loses Arabia to the Persian Sassinids under Chosroes I.

The Arrival of Islam.

650- (circa) Yemen falls under rule of Islam.

1000- Yemen ruled by caliphs of Egypt.

1165- beginning of Muslim persecution of Jews in Saydi Yemen.

1250 (circa)- Yemen is an important source of alum for the dying of textiles.

The Ottomans and the Arrival of British Trading Interests.

1517 - the Ottomans occupy Yemen

-Britain using Aden and hinterland for trading and strategic outposts in the India sea trade.

1650 (circa) Ottomans expelled from Yemen.

-Aden ruled by the Sultanate of Lahej.

1798 (crica) -British attempt but fail to take strategic Perim island off the coast of Aden in the Red Sea to ward off Napoleon's ambitions in India.

1839- British seize Aden and make the Sultan of Lahej into a vassal.

Aden a British Colony.

1839- Aden becomes part of the British Empire; the port is needed to secure the passage to India.

-Aden ruled from India by the Presidency of Bombay.

1869- Aden becomes a refueling station at the opening of the Suez Canal.

1849- the Ottomans re-occupy north Yemen only to face revolt.

Hamid Al Din Rules North Yemen.

1900- North Yemen under Ottoman suzerainty, ruled by Yahya Hamid al Din (1869-1948)

1911- al Din rebels against Ottomans and gains greater powers.

1914-18- Ottoman Turks attacking Birtish garrisons in Aden. In north, al Din supports Ottomans.

1916- arrival of German offficers in command of Ottoman troops in Yemen helps set off the Arab rebellion.

North Yemen Independent After World War One.

1918- with the defeat of the Ottomans, north Yemen becomes independent under the rule of the Imam Yahya Hamid al Din with British support. Yahya centralizes government in return for giving Sharia law to the tribes.

1925- Imam Yahya occupies Hodeida port from the Asir region in bid to re-establish Greater Yemen. But Britain stops any further expansion.

1926- Sept. 22- treaty between Italy and the Imam of Yemen- in which Italy hopes to gain access to the east and west coasts lf the Red Sea.

-border disputes between Saudi Arabia and Yemen.

British Rule in South Yemen.

1927- Britain rules Aden directly as opposed to the surrounding protectorate.

1932- Aden governed directly from colonial British India.

Treaty Between Brtiain and North Yemen.

1934- Feb 11- 40 year treaty between Britain and Sana'a.

-North Yemen and Saudi Arabia go to war over the Asir region. Saudi Arabia, after seizing Hodeida is stopped from further expansion by British, French and Italian warship.s

May-June- Britain brokers a peace which leaves North Yemen independent but with half its territory.

1936- April 2- North Yemen joins treaty of non-aggression between Saudi Arabia and Iraq.

British Rule of South Yemen.

1937- Aden becomes a Crown Colony of the Britain and the surrounding territory formally becomes a British protectorate, ruled directly by a British governor.

-despite Birtish development and progress, frequent anti-British riots.

1937- Oct 15- renewal of Italy-Yemen treaty for 25 years. Imam of Yemen tries to maintain independence from Arabia, Britain and Italy.

1945- North Yemen a charter member of the Arab League.

British South Yemen made up of 23 Sultanates.

1947- British establish an advisory council in Aden. Tading city of 100,000, majority Arab. The Aden protectorate stretches along the south, approximating what would be South Yemen with eastern and western protectorates, 23 Arab sultanates, emirates, sheikhdoms and minor tribal units...British authority through all the entities is irregular, secured by individual treaties. Majority of the 80,000 are Bedouin tribesmen. All policed by Arab troops under British officers.
Most privielged principality i Lahej.

1947- Sept. 30- North Yemen admitted to UN.

North Yemen's Yahya al Din Assassinated. Heir dreams of Greater Yemen.

1948- Imam Yahya is assassinated but his son Ahmad ibn Yahya succeeds him and preserves feudalsim. He will rule intil 1962.

1948-1962- Yemen becomes isolated and backward.

-British stop Imam Ahmad of North Yemen from attemting to recreate Greater Yemen.

1956- April 21- Nasser, King Saud, and Imam Ahmad sign a 5-year tripartite military pact under Egyptian command.

-Moscow sending miltary aid to Syria, Egypt and Yemen.

North Yemen Begins to make gains in South Yemen.

1958- March 8- in Damascus, Ibn Ahmad, and his son the Crown Prince Said al-Badr join Nasser in forming a loose federation of North Yemen with the UAR to be called the United Federation of Arab States.

-June- one third of the army of the Aden Sultanate of Lahej defects to North Yemen due to sultan's compaints about British domination. Britain appeals for hel from Egypt's Nasser.

Beginning of anti-British National Consciousness in South Yemen.

-the Sultanate of Lahej forms the Southern Arabian League to oppose Britain and form a south Arabian state including Aden and its territories which would then join Yemen in the United Arab States.

1959- Feb 11- Britain brokers a federation of the 6 Arab emirates of the south, including south Yemen but not Aden, in return for future independence.

-Aden is Britain's last secure possession in the Middle East.

1961- UAR ends federation with North Yemen. Ibn Ahmad turns against Egypt's Nasser.

British Grip on South Yemen is Loosened.

1962- July 25- delegates at London conference on Aden agree to its merger with the South Arabian Federation of the Sheikhdoms in the Aden territories. Riots erupt because the SAF is controlled by conservative Sheikhs.

-Republic of Yemen renews claims to all of southern Yemen and border skirmishes erupt with the British. Leftist NLF Republicans supported by the UAR oppse the Biritsh and the conservative Sheikhs.

Civil War in NorthYemen falls along Cold War Lines.

1962- Sept 19- upon the death of Ahmad, latter is succeded by his son Muhammad Al-Badr but the army takes control under General Abdullah al-Sallal in a coup dètat, forming the Yemen Arab Repubpic (YAR). In a civil war the royalists take refuge in Saudi Arabia and are backed by the Zaidi tribes in the north, Saudi Arabia and Jordan and the republicans by the Sunni Sahfei hill tribes of the south, the United Arab Republic, Syria and Nasser`s Egypt. Royalists receive arms from British South Africa. The Republicans are armed by th Soviet Union.

-Royalists try to rouse the tribes against the rebels.

-Nov 6- Saudi Arabia claims that UAR planes bombed Saudi territory while assisting the rebels.

-Nov 11- UAR and Yemeni Republic announce military defence treaty.

-US exerts pressure to prevent the fighting from destabilizing Saudi Arabia and other oil producers in the region.

1963- Mar 2- UN rep Ralph J Bunche in Yemen to observe involvement of Saudi Arabia and the UAR in the civil war.

-Aden joins the South Arabian Federation of Arab Emirates.

-June 7- UN persuades UAR and Saudia Arabia to help broker a peace in North Yemen Civil War.

1964- March 3- Saudi Arabia and the UAR officially urge independence for South Yemen.

March 24- North Yemen President al-Salel visitis Moscow and obtains a treaty and aid from Soviet Union.

March 28- Britain sends planes to bomb a Yemeni fort after Yemenis launch an attack on Federation of South Arabia.

-June 15- North Yemen signs friendship treaty with China.

Civil War in Territories of South Yemen

-after a civil war in South Yemen between the northern-influenced National Liberation Front (NLF) and the Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen (FLOSY), the NLF is victorious by 1967.

1967- Salel tries to rgain territory North Yemen lost in civil war but fails due to Egypt being tied up in war with Israel.

North Yemen's President Salel overthrown after losing support of Egypt.

-November- Salel, deprived of Egyptian support is overthrown by officers led by Abdul Rahman al Iryani.

South Yemen becomes independent inder the National Liberation Front.

1967- under negotiations wth the NLF in South Yemen, Britain begins to withdraw from all of South Arabia.

-under the NLF South Yemen established as The People's Republic of Yemen (PDRY), including South Arabia and the port of Aden. But much impoverished after the departure of the British.

-but soon the NLF is split between thouse who want a traditional socialist government and radicals who want a Marxist party organization and state control.

-South Yemen is never properly unified.

Far Left Rules South Yemen.

1968 -in South Yemen, far left prevails and begins to impose Communism in two out of six states despite moderate central government.

-border attacks by FLOSY on South Yemen from the north, with support from Saudis and local Sheikhs.

-attempts are made to impose Communism on South Yemen through cooperatives and central planning with assistance from USSR. In return, USSR gets a naval base in Yemen.

1969- leftist leader in South Yemen turns power over to a radical left guerrilla council.

1970- North Yemen ruled by fragile republican coalition.

-South Yemen renamed The People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. (PDRY)

1971. South Yemen represses dissidents as rebel groups form against the government.

1972- border clashes between the YAR of North Yemen and the PDRY. Arab League brokers a ceasefire.

Instability in North Yemen.

1974- military coup deposing Iryani places North Yemen under command of Hussein al Ghashmi.

1977- President Ibrahim Hamdo assassinated.

1978- President Gashmi assassinated.

North Yemen More Stable under President Saleh.

1978-Ali Abdallah Saleh is new president of North Yemen. Backs the People's Constituent Assembly. He looks for help from Saudi Arabia and the West despite hostility from tribal leaders which slowed progress within the country.

-in South Yemen the NLF is replaced by rhe Yemen Socialist Party modeled on the
Communist Party of the USSR.

1979- new efforts to unite north and south Yemen spark new fighting.

1980- Al Nasser Muhammed takes control of South Yemen in a coup.

1981- Saleh sets up 1,000 member General People's Congress.

-Saleh signs a unity agreement with South Yemen.

1982- thousands killed in earthquake.

1984- oil production increases rappidly in North Yemen.

-Saleh accepts economic support from Saudi Arabia while forging links with leftists in South Yemen.

Coup in South Yemen.

1986- President Ali Nasser Mohammed flees the country after attempted assassination. New government sentences him to death for treason. Ali Salim al Beidh is president of South Yemen.

-Moscow cuts its aid to South Yemen, spurring the latter to unity talks with North.

-brief civil war followed by unity talks.

1988- Saleh re-elected in North Yemen.

Unification of Yemen.

1990- Yemen is united under Presdent Saleh. Former president of South Yemen, al Beidh becomes vice president.

1991- Yemen opposes the US-led Gulf War.

1993- April -ruling parties of the former north and south form a coalition government. But little attempt is made to unify the tribal and feudal north with the south and the socialist stuctures imposed on it. North and South maintain separate armies and separate broadcasting.

-elections- YSP of al Beidh accuses Saleh of co-opting the YIG party to gain power.

Collapse of Unified Yemen.

-August- Vice President Ali Salim Al Beidh takes refuge in Aden claiming that the south is being neglected and northernerns are persecuting southerners.

1994- May- Northern and southern armies, which never integrated, face one another on the border threatening war.

May - Saleh imposes state of emegency and dismisses Al Beid after government deadlock and increasing violence.

May 21- Saleh declares the independence and unity of Yemen, declares secession illegal

-Bakr al-Attas declares South Yemen independent.

Saleh Re-unifies Yemen by Force.

July - North Yemeni government forces occupy Aden, force secessionist leaders out of the country and re-unify the country.

Sept 28- new constitution establishes Islamic Law as legal basis of country. Saleh elected to a 5 year term as president.

1995- Yemen and Eritrea fight over disputed island territory.

-border disputes between North Yemen and Saudi Arabia aggravated by discovery of oil in the area.

-Yemen fails to control outlying tribal regions.

Yemen Strengthens Ties with United States.

1998- Nov- in strenghening its ties with the US, Yemen has joint military exerces with US.

1999- north-south border disputes resolved with a 40 km demilitarized zone.

-Yemen aggrees to let US Navy use Aden for refueling.

Al Qaeda Bombs USS Cole.

2000- US war ship the USS Cole damaged in terrorist attack killing 17 sailors. US blames Al Qaeda franchise the Isamic Army of Aden Abyan. Yemen cooperates fully with US to track down culprits.

Oct- Four Yemenis confess to carrying out bomb attack at the British Embassy; say they did so in solidarity with the Palestinians.

2001- February- violent referendum shows support for increases presidental powers and term limit. The north continues to dominate the south through the General People's Congress.

2001- November- President Saleh visits Washington and tells Bush that Yemen will join the fight against terror.

Yemen Cracks down on Al Qaeda.

-US and Yemen agree that mountain homeland of the Bin Ladens is a prime region for terror training camps.

2002- Feb. Yemen expels over 100 Islamic scholars, many of them English and French nationals in a a move against Al Qaeda suspects.

Oct. -the supertanker Limburg is heavily damaged off the coast of Yemen in attack. Al Qaeda is suspected.

2003- April- 10 chief suspects in bombing of SS Cole escape from prison in Aden.

2004- two of the SS Cole suspects are re-captured.

Islamist Shia al Houthi Insurgency in north.

June-August: Government troops battle Shia Islamist leader and cleric Hussein al Houthi in north Yemen. Hundreds killed.

August- court sentences 15 men in bombing of the Limburg and other terror attacks.

Sept. -Government troops claim to have killed rebel cleric Al Houthi in the north.

Sept 29- 2004- A Yemeni court senteces two Al Qaeda operatives, Al-Bashiri and Al Badawi to death for the attack on the USS Cole. Four others get prison sentences.

March-April- insurgent followers of Al Houthi renew attacks on government forces.

May- rebel leader of Al Houthi's Shia movement offers to lay down arms in return for pardon amid continued fighting.

2006- 600 followers of slain Shia rebel cleric Al Houthi are given amnesty.

Sept- Saleh wins another term as president.

Sucessor to al Houthi Resumes Shia Insurgency.

2007- January-March- government fighting against Shia Al Houthi rebels in north.

June- successor Abdul Malik al Houthi accepts ceasefire.

July- convoy hit by suicide bomber killing 8 Yemenis and 2 Spaniards in Marib province.

Aug. Fire arms banned for citizens in Yemen along with demonstrations without a permit.

-November- tribesmen attack troops guarding a Ukrainian oil company leaving 16 dead in Shabwa Province.

2008- January- more fighting between followers of Shia rebel cleric Abdul Malik Al Houthi and government forces.

March-April- widespread attacks against foreign targets and installations in Yemen. US embassy evacuates personnel.

April- clashes in south with govenrment troops in demonstrations against job descimintion against south Yemen.

Sept- attack on US embassy in Sana'a kills 8 including asaillants. Six arrested.

Oct.- Saleh announces arrest of Islamist militants.

Nov.- police fire on demonsrrators demanding electoral reform. Five injured.

 Formation of Al Qaeda in the Arabian Penminsula (AQAP)

2009- Jan-March- the Yemeni and Saudi affiliates of Al Qaeda merge into Al Qaeda in the Arabian peninsula. AQAP formed from a merger of al Qaeda's Yemeni and Saudi branches and led by Nasir ul-Wuhayshi. The Saudi group had been effectively suppressed by the Saudi government, forcing its members to seek sanctuary in Yemen. It is believed to have several hundred members.

Feb. -government Announces release of five Al Qaeda suspects on condition of good behaviour.

2009- June- 9 foreigners abducted in the northern Saada region; bodies of three discovered.

Aug.- government launches offensive against Shia insurgency in northern Saada region, dsiplacing thousands.

Oct.- Shia rebels in Saada on the northern border clash with Saudi security forces. Rebels claim the Saudis are cooperating with the government in Sana'a

Nov. -Saudi Arabia recaptures territory lost from Shia rebels in border region.

Underwear Airline Bomber Trained in Yemen under Al Qaeda.

Dec. -Al Qaeda claims responsibility for the Christmas attack on a US airliner by
the 'underwear bomber.' Sana'a asks for the West's support in the war on terror.

Dec 25- Umar Farouk Abdulmatallab, the "Underwear Bomber", arrested for attempting to blow up Northwest Airlines Flight 253. He had been trained in Yemen by 'Al Qaeda in the Arabian

2010- President Saleh says he will open talks with Al Qaeda militants provided they renounce violence.

Ceasefire with al Houthi Shia Rebels.

2010- Feb.- cease-fire signed with northern Shia Houthi rebels.

March- Houthi rebels release 178 captives after government accuses them of failing to abide by terms of ceasefire.

2010- June 19- Four al Qaeda gunmen dressed in women’s clothing attacked an intelligence headquarters in Aden and freed several suspected al Qaeda militants. On June 21 Yemen announced the arrest of the attack’s mastermind. Security forces investigating the attack made several arrests on June 25 in Aden during house-to-house searches. On July 11, AQAP claimed that its Martyr Jamil al Anbari Brigade carried out the attack. An AQAP statement stated the attack killed 24 officers and soldiers, deviating from the government’s report of 11 killed. AQAP also denied that the government had captured those responsible for the attack

Sept- government military offensivce forces thousands to flee south Shawba separatist militants.

Oct- government troops under US pressure fighting Al Qaeda in difficult, rugged terrain of South Yemen, particularly in the Abyan region.

Bombs Found on US-Bound Yemen Cargo Plane; Yemen Allows US Air Strikes.

2010 October - Global terror alert after packages containing explosives originating in Yemen are intercepted on cargo planes bound for the US.

2010- Dec. Wikileaks: Yemen Allowed US Airstrikes against Al Qaeda.

2010 December - Yemen says 3,000 soldiers killed in recent outbreak of fighting involving Houthi rebels.

 US State Department Concerned about Al Qaeda in Yemen.

2011 January - US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visits to express "urgent concern" at al-Qaeda activities in Yemen.

-Tunisian street protests which unseat President Ben Ali appear to encourage similar demonstrations in other countries, including Yemen.  President Saleh pledges not to extend his presidency in 2013 or to hand over to his son.

 Arab Spring Protests Spread to Yemen.

2011- Feb 25- More than 180,000 pro­test­ers take to the cap­it­al, Sana, in the largest pro-demo­cracy demon­stra­tions in Ye­men’s his­tory. More than 150,000 con­vened in oth­er cit­ies and provinces across Ye­men, ac­cord­ing to loc­al news re­ports.

2011- March 2- The pres­id­ent and op­pos­i­tion lead­ers make tent­at­ive plans for re­form, in­clud­ing the pro­vi­sion that Pres­id­ent Ali Ab­dul­lah Saleh will step down by the end of the year.

2011 March - Pro-reform demonstrations continue. Police snipers open fire on pro-democracy camp in Sanaa, killing more than 50 people. Senior military figures including key general, Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar, declare their backing for protest movement. Several ministers and other senior regime figures also defect to protesters. President Saleh says unrest risks plunging country into civil war. State of emergency is imposed.

AQAP Takes South East Yemen

2011- March 29- In Ye­men’s tri­bal north­ern and south­ern ter­rit­or­ies, in­sur­gents take over six of 18 provinces.

2011- On 31 March -AQAP declares Abyan governoratwe in southeast Yemen to be an "islamic Emirate" after seizing control of the region

2011 April - Unrest and violent government response continue. President Saleh vows to remain in office.

2011- April 23- Pres­id­ent Ali Ab­dul­lah Saleh agrees to an in­ter­na­tion­ally ne­go­ti­ated plan to step down with­in 30 days in ex­change for crim­in­al im­munity in the deadly crack­down on protests.

2011- May 12- Ye­meni se­cur­ity forces and anti-gov­ern­ment pro­test­ers clash vi­ol­ently, as Per­sian Gulf and U.S. of­fi­cials press for a deal that would al­low long­time Pres­id­ent Ali Ab­dul­lah Saleh to leave of­fice with im­munity.

2011- May 22- Pres­id­ent Ali Ab­dul­lah Saleh re­fuses to sign the ac­cord for him to step down with im­munity, and a re­gion­al coun­cil says it is ceas­ing ef­forts for a deal.

2011- May 27- Battle of Zinjibar- about 300 Islamic militants attacked and captured the coastal city of Zinjibar (population 20,000). During the takeover of the town, the militants killed seven soldiers, including a colonel, and one civilian

2011 May - Dozens die in clashes between troops and tribal fighters in Sanaa. Airport shuts and thousands flee the city.

 President Saleh Injured in Rocket Attack.

2011 June - President Saleh is injured in a rocket attack and is flown to Saudi Arabia.
British and French forces prepare to evacuate foreigners in the event of a civil war.

 2011- June 12- Des­pite their tenacity and de­sire to fash­ion a new or­der, pro­test­ers face a threat that it is the con­test between Pres­id­ent Ali Ab­dul­lah Saleh’s fam­ily and a rival clan that will de­cide what change, if any, comes to Ye­men

2011- June 15- SANA'A // The US has conducted more than 15 drone attacks in Yemen since the beginning of June, a Yemen defence ministry official said. The increase of such attacks is part of a US strategy to employ more drones to curb what the US believes is a growing terror threat in Yemen, the Washington Post and Wall Street Journal reported on Monday. The US plans to begin supplementing US military drones with CIA drones because US officials say the political chaos in Yemen has compromised its efforts to contain terrorists in Yemen, the newspapers reported.

 2011- Aug 15: AQAP bombed an al Houthi meeting in a government administration complex in al Matama in al Jawf governorate. AQAP claimed responsibility for the attack in a statement issued on September 12. The statement noted that the suicide bomber was Abu Bakr Muhammad al Najda and claimed that the attack killed over one hundred al Houthis

-Pro­test­ers have been strug­gling for months to over­throw Pres­id­ent Ali Ab­dul­lah Saleh. But unity and or­der are in short sup­ply.

 US Assassinates Al Qaeda Preacher Awlaki

Sept- US-born al-Qaeda leader Anwar al-Awlaki is assassinated by US forces.

Sept 18- Se­cur­ity forces open fire on tens of thou­sands of demon­strat­ors in Ye­men’s cap­it­al, Sana, killing at least 26 pro­test­ers in one of the blood­i­est days of the 9-month-old re­bel­lion against Pres­id­ent Ali Ab­dul­lah Saleh.

2011- Sept 23- Nearly four months after he was severely wounded in an as­sas­sin­a­tion at­tempt, Pres­id­ent Ali Ab­dul­lah Saleh makes a sur­prise re­turn to Ye­men.

2011 October - Yemeni human rights activist Tawakul Karman wins Nobel Peace Prize, together with Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and Leymah Gbowee of Liberia.

UN Security Council passes resolution condemning violence, calls for transfer of power.

President Saleh Agrees to Leave Office Under Pressure from UN.

2011 November - President Saleh agrees to hand over power to his deputy, Abdrabbuh Mansour Hadi, who takes office at uncontested presidential elections in February.

2011- Dec 13- Yemeni security forces arrested six “well-known” al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) operatives in Yemen; among the operatives was high-value target and leader of AQAP in al Jawf governorate, Musaed al Barbari. A stockpile of weapons and “training manuals” were found in his possession. The suspects, including Barbari, Mohamed Hussein Musayyib, Mohammad Abdulkadir Ahmed al Shihri, Nader Ahmad Mohamed al Qubati, Mohamed Muthana Ali al Amari, and Abdul Munaim Hamid Ali Abu Ghanem, had been planning attacks targeting high-ranking security officials, foreign embassies, and government buildings in Yemen. Also, the suspects had been “actively recruiting fighters” to join Ansar al Sharia militants fighting in Abyan and Shabwah governorates. Separately, three fugitives who escaped from al Mansoura Central Security prison in Aden on December 11 were captured

Unity Government Under President Mansour Hadi

Unity government - including a prime minister from the opposition - is formed.

2012 January - President Saleh leaves country. Parliament grants him full immunity in the face of objections from thousands of street protesters.

2012 February - Abdrabbuh Mansour Hadi inaugurated as president after uncontested elections.

AQAP Kills 188 Yemeni soldiers in Abyan. 

 2012- March 4- MARCH 4, 2012: AQAP militants stormed an army base in Kod, south of Abyan’s capital, Zinjibar, and then fighting spread to other military posts in the area. The attack began with coordinated SVBIEDs at military posts at Zinjibar’s southern and western entrances, which killed at least seven Yemeni soldiers and wounded 12 others. Overall, over 185 Yemeni soldiers were killed in the assaults. Additionally, over 70 were taken captive by AQAP, and then paraded through the streets of Jaar

2012- March 28- Abdullah al Khaldi, the deputy counsel at the Saudi consulate in Aden, was kidnapped on his way to work. The Saudi Interior Ministry announced in April that they believed AQAP had kidnapped him and was holding him captive. Saudi Interior Ministry spokesman Major General Mansour al Turki stated that Saudi Arabia’s embassy in Sana’a received a phone call from former Guantanamo detainee Mishaal Mohammed Rasheed al Shadoukhi, wanted by Saudi Arabia, claiming responsibility for the kidnapping and providing a list of demands. Shadoukhi demanded a number of AQAP-affiliated members be released from Saudi jails, including several women, and a ransom be paid. 

2012- April 1: AQAP militants attacked an army base near Shibam in Hadramawt governorate, killing seven Yemeni soldiers while they slep

 International Donors Pledge to Aid Yemen.

2012 May - International donors pledge more than $4bn in aid to Yemen to help improve infrastructure and security. Aid agencies warn that Yemen is on the brink of food crisis. The government is thought to have asked for some $10bn.

-An al-Qaeda leader Fahd al-Quso in Yemen wanted over the 2000 bombing of the US warship USS Cole is killed in an unmanned drone attack.

2012- May12-17- Yemini army drives AQAP from Abyan Governorate. 

 2012- May 21: AQAP claims responsibility for a suicide bombing at a rehearsal for a military parade in Sana’a, Yemen’s capital, killed over 90 people. The blast occurred in al Sab’een Square, near the presidential palace, and may have targeted Yemen’s Minister of Defense, Major General Mohammed Nasser Ahmed. The bomber was disguised as a soldier.

May-June: The army launches an offensive against AQAP in the province of Abyane. More than 560 people die in the fighting.

 Yemen Captures Al Qaeda Strongholds.

2012 June - The army recaptures three al-Qaeda strongholds in the south - Shuqra, Zinjibar and Jaar.

2012 September - Defence Minister Muhammad Nasir Ahmad survives car bomb attack in Sanaa that kills 11 people, a day after local al-Qaeda deputy head Said al-Shihri is reportedly dead in the south.

2012 November - A Saudi diplomat and his bodyguard are shot dead in Sanaa. Security officials say the assailants, who opened fire on the diplomat's convoy, were dressed in police uniforms.

2013- January 31- clashes broke out between Yemeni Army units and suspected militants in al-Maraksha, Abyan Governorate. By February 2 the government forces had successfully pushed the insurgents out of the town, killing 12 of them. At least 5 Yemeni soldiers and local militia members were also killed during the fighting

2013- - July 17: AQAP confirms the death in a US drone strike of deputy leader Saeed al-Shehri.

2013- August 4: Security is beefed up around western embassies in Sana, and some close following warnings by Washington of an imminent attack.

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